Friday, July 29, 2011

Does your company employ a Personnel Management (PM) or Human Resource Management (HRM) approach to managing people? If it employs an HRM Approach, would you describe it as “hard” or “soft”? If it uses a PM approach suggest ways in which it may adopt a “s

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Storey (15,p1) states that people are the most important asset to a business. If this is to be believed, choosing the right approach to managing people is critical to the success of an organisation. Today it is widely recognised that there are two ways to manage people, Traditional Personnel Management (PM) or Human Resource Management (HRM); however, in many organisations the Human Resource department itself is not clear as to the differences. To complicate matters further, HRM can range between two approaches, hard and soft, which must be differentiated between to define an organisations approach to the management of people.


In this essay I will discuss the theories surrounding the differences between HRM and PM and the criteria that defines HRM as either hard or soft. I will then analyse The National Centre for Product Design and Development Research (XXX) to identify its approach towards the management of its people


History


The middle to late 180s saw the emergence of Human Resource management firstly in the US and then shortly afterward in the UK. This new style of management provoked mixed reaction from writers at the time, from to Torrington et al. (11,p) who suggests that it may be seen by line managers as a way that senior management can push more responsibility onto them with little training or reward. This disparity could be due to the confusion of what differentiates HRM from PM.


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Discussion of literature


Among writers on the subject of Personnel and Human Resource management there seems to be some uncertainty and inconsistency as to what classifies organisational behaviour as adopting a Personnel or Human Resource management approach to managing employees. There are several theories that suggest reasons for this disparity. Townley (14) suggests that this is because there is a conflict between the “welfare tradition” of PM and the strategic goals of HRM and also that there is a gender gap between hard, (male) and soft (female) HRM. However Legge (15) theorises that many of the differences occur because of the different models used to observe behaviour. She suggests there are four models that can be used to examine organisational behaviour.


1. Normative What the organisation aspires to do with regards to personnel.


. Descriptive functional An accurate and non-critical description of what the personnel department do.


. Critical evaluation A description of what the personnel department does with critical overtones


4. Descriptive behavioural An accurate portrayal of the actions of the people within the personnel department.


This study will focus on the normative model, as I believe that to some degree what an organisation aspires to do will, in one form or another, filter down to the behaviour of that organisation.


Differences between PM and HRM


With so much written on the differences between HRM and PM there are many lists of criteria as to what characteristics are exhibited by organisations that adopt the different approaches to the management of people. For example Guest (187) identifies seven “stereotypes” of Personnel and Human Resource management, whereas Storey (1b, P5) suggests there are 7 key dimensions split between four categories i.e. Beliefs and aspirations, Strategic aspects, Line management and Key levers. All of these criteria allude to three issues, which will define whether an organisation can be said to operate a PM or HRM. Legge (15,P74) defines these issues as follows.


The first is that Personnel Management “appears to be something performed on subordinates by managers” whereas HRM “not only emphasises the importance of employee development, but focuses particularly on the development of “the management team””.


Secondly, she suggests that with both HRM and PM approaches, the management of people is an important role of the line manager. PM focuses on the fact that line managers manage people, so personnel management is carried out almost by default. However, HRM treats line managers as business managers who are responsible for the allocation and application of the resources at their disposal for maximum commercial gain.


The last issue deals with who should manage organisational culture and implement organisational values. Normative PM models do not view Personnel Management and Organisational Development as integrated activities. Development of organisational culture is seen as a non-essential and something to be conducted when financial circumstances permit. The HRM model however sees the management of organisational culture, development and values as a key activity, to be conducted and championed by senior management.


In essence, in a normative HRM model, all employees, from senior management down, should engage in personal development that directly supports the business strategy. Line managers are responsible for managing their own resources in pursuit of organisational goals and the management of culture, development and values are the responsibility of senior management. This is opposed to a PM model where training is not always intentionally aimed towards strategic business development, line management tasks regarding personnel are routed through a specific personnel department and senior management does not take responsibility for the management of organisational culture, development and values.


Hard and Soft HRM


Having defined the principles on which a normative HRM model is based, it is necessary to differentiate between hard and soft HRM. Having accepted the three principles of what constitutes HRM it is possible to see how they can be applied with equal validity to completely opposite styles of management. Storey and Sisson (1,p17) classify hard HRM as management that sees employees purely as a resource that can be manipulated for maximum commercial gain. Whereas soft HRM focuses more on an organisational culture where co-operation, communication and constructive supervision are encouraged to stimulate a productive working environment.


There are many ways in which the culture of hard or soft HRM can manifest itself in an organisation. However the underlying principle is that in soft HRM employees are treated like adults and given the freedom to achieve organisational goals as they see fit without stringent rules and operating procedures. Obviously there have to be procedures in place to deal with under achievement, but with the right people in the right roles, the need to use them should rarely arise.


Case Study


The XXX (XXX) is one of the country’s leading centres in the field of product design and development research. It is based at the XXX and employs around forty staff experienced in the areas of product design and development, reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and rapid tooling. The centre delivers a comprehensive range of expertise and services working in both long and short term partnerships with organisations to optimise their development processes, manufacturing processes (through the XXX)) and their products. The centre also offers a range of tooling services and batch production of components as well as carrying out research into new applications for the technology it operates, such as medical engineering. In 1 XXX was made a Centre of Excellence for Technology and Industrial Collaboration


In Order to establish XXX’s approach to people management, I decided to interview the Director of Research & Enterprise who, together with the general director, manage XXX within the university.


Mission statement strategic objectives key points.


There is a central Personnel Department that deals with payroll and general administrative tasks including absence monitoring and record keeping etc.


All these answers point toward XXX operating an HRM approach to managing personnel


To categorise the type of HRM in operation at XXX the line managers from two different sections of the organisation were interviewed with a separate structure designed to focus on the style of management operated in that department. These departments were the research department, involved in the new applications for the technologies in use at XXX and the workshop, involved in the production of prototype tooling, batch production and rapid prototyping.





The response from the managers of the research department was that they operate a soft HRM policy. This was evident in the fact that, due to the nature of work that is carried out, the working style is left very much up to the individual. There is the option to work from home, and there is very little control over break times and working hours. Again, due to the nature of the work, the allocation of work is on a long-term project basis, with regular meetings to monitor progress and advise on new avenues for investigation. These factors go toward making the research department a very relaxed and productive environment.


When the workshop manager was interviewed he was unsure as to what classification he thought his area of responsibility fell into as it operates policies that are indicative of both hard and soft HRM. For example a claxon system is used to rigidly determine the working hours and breaks, which would seem to indicate a hard approach to HRM. However there are also soft HRM principles in operation especially in the way that responsibility for project management is handed down. Work is allocated on a project basis with one employee being in charge of a project, responsible for delegating tasks to people with relevant specialist skills. This is closely monitored from a supervisory level, but this supervision is constructive and hence indicative of soft HRM. This delegation is designed to promote a culture of project ownership and responsibility among all levels of employees and is reflected in the quality of work produced.





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Monday, July 25, 2011

Interpretation of Edward Taylor's Meditation 42 (First Series)

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Like Edward Taylors other Preparatory Meditations, Meditation 4 uses iambic pentameter with mostly ABABCC rhyming stanzas. The structure of the poem is similar to that of a sermon, beginning with a metaphor and a question, moving into the development of this question and metaphor, and finally concluding with a prayer of petition. As the Bible verse at the beginning suggests, this poem is about Gods prerogative where heaven is concerned; in other words, how Gods grace is completely necessary for humankind to obtain the afterlife experience of heaven. Taylor organizes the poem into three parts, beginning with the unified metaphor and problem of the locked heart rusted by sin, which needs to be unlocked to Gods love, moving on the unlocking of Gods wardrobe to bring forth the heavenly robes and a development of the heavenly place, and ending in a final prayer of petition to dwell there.


In the first part, the poet introduces golden applesin silver pictures shrined and the Loveliness in Lumps, tunn¡¯d, and enrined in Jasper Cask, both images that stimulate desire and are pleasing to the senses. These sensual experiences are appealing to him, and his love is personified as birds which fly readily towards these objects of desire. Likewise, he knows that God is as appealing and beautiful and valuable, yet because of sin, his heart is rusty and cannot be opened until God, the metaphorical locksmith, finally discovers among his ten thousand keys on a string, one that can open it. Meanwhile, the Love in the poets heart, rather than flying eagerly like birds as it did to the two images introduced in the first stanza, cringes in a corner, withered and shrunken like an old apple. In the third stanza, he therefore prays to God to renew his lock (heart), rubbing off the rust, removing the sin, and oiling it, and then promises that his Love will respond, enlivened, to Gods love and grace.


Part two (stanza four) describes the metaphorical unlocking of the wardrobe and the distribution of heavenly garments. At this point the poets Love seems ready to wait on His King, who prepares a place for those who love Him, taking them (moving into stanza five) to His palace not only to view, but to join in this kingdom posessing the Crown of Life and the throne of Glory. Here God changes from the Locksmith to the owner of the Land.


And it is a glorious land, comparable to the Promised Land of Canaan with glory, gold, grace, and all Properties Divine. In this final section, the new inhabitants of Heaven (those who love Him; the His in stanza four) are taken by God to the threshold to look over their new home. Its riches suggest an even higher degree of desirability than the objects that stimulated the heart at the beginning of the poem Finally, the poet anticipates the happiness of receiving this blest Heritage, and pleads with God to clothe him in holy robes and to allow him to see Heaven through a peephole. He concludes with a promise that if God takes him in, he will pay the rent in happiness. This final line, Ill pay, when I possess Thy Throne, to Thee the Rent in Happiness could be interpreted in two ways. First, it could mean that the poet will happily pay the rent for entering heaven; mostly likely praise and worship for the rest of eternity. Secondly, it could mean that the rent itself is to be paid with happiness; in other words, his happiness will be so great that it can cover the enormous price of so valuable an estate.


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Meditation 4 is a prayer of hope and anticipation. Taylor is completely assured of Gods ability and sovereignty; all he hopes for is His grace in permitting him to enter the gates of heaven. And this petition is based not on works, but on his Love (capitalized probably to emphasize its key importance), which he firmly believes needs to be fully and wholly directed towards God, ready to fly towards Him, like Birds, at any moment.





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Santa CLause gone bad

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Santa Clause Gone Bad


One side of me wonders how a man I thought I loved so much could do this to my beloved daughter. On the other hand, I loved Bill McReynolds and he is more important to me than JonBenet ever was. But it is easy to say that JonBenet was worth more and money is everything. How is it that I am having such mixed feelings at a time such as this? “Get yourself together Patsy”, I quietly say out loud to myself. This is a time for me to put on my best act, probably the best act I’ll ever put on. How long will this go on? It is already December 6, 16, and I’ve only gone through two days of this lying, questioning, mass chaotic period and already I’m frankly just sick of it. I mean, am I a bad mother for writing the ransom note?


As I sit here in the exact spot I left the ransom note, I can feel the grit from the unkempt, unswept softening wooden stairs. Reporters are surrounding me questioning me, cameras in my face, strangers everywhere. But I am blocking all of that out and all I can think about is one thing and that is how much I love my lifestyle and in order for me to maintain it, I need John Ramsey in my life. I am also thinking about how my true lover is Bill, but I can’t for the life of me decide if covering with the ransom note for him was doing the right thing. It seems like only yesterday Bill was in my home and things were normal.


It is Christmas morning and an ordinary day in the life of the Ramsey family. JonBenet and Burke are running around the Christmas tree and chasing each other around our gorgeously decorated home. It was a beautiful day and although I longed for Bill, John and the kids were enough for the time being. It was like Bill read my mind, because in that moment there was a knock at the door all too familiar to my ears, and Bill knowing our hospitality towards him within seconds was in our living room without any of us having to get the door.


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“Merry Christmas to the most wonderful family in Boulder!” shouted Bill. “How is my little snow angel today?” he asked JonBenet who was too busy twirling around gracefully in her brand new pink dress to hear him.


“We are all excellent,” John replied, “just excellent.”


Bill asked me to join him in the kitchen for a moment to talk about his Santa costume for the evening so I excused myself from my family and followed him into the bright yellow room. The moment we were completely out of sight he casually and so very smoothly slipped a small wrapped box into my robe pocket. He then took out a small branch of mistletoe from his coat pocket and held it above our heads, and of course the next thing I knew I was tasting the kiss that was perhaps more well-known to me than that of John’s.


“Bill really, we must remember that there is a place and time for us, and in the middle of my family kitchen two rooms away from my children and husband isn’t one of those places.” I said sternly but flirtatiously.


“Darling you know I can’t help myself, but if we must change the subject then tell me if this Santa hat is suitable for tonight.” He pulled a hat out of the other side of his coat, which at this moment seemed to be filled with many surprises. But Bill is always full of surprises, and he is much unpredictable as well.


“It’s perfect.” I answered as we made our way back to the living room where I had left my children and husband for ten minutes that had seemed like two.


“Well, I am going to head home but I’ll see all of you tonight at the party where I will no longer be the man you all are currently looking at, but in fact Santa himself!” Bill laughed and said his goodbyes for the remainder of the day.


Before we knew it, it was time to go to the party. It was at one of our close friends homes, and it was only a few blocks away. The party was quite larger than I had expected, but just as I had expected Bill was sitting in a big red chair by the fireplace with a small boy on his lap and many others in line to talk to Santa, the highlight of the party. JonBenet had been very quiet all night until she decided that she had to go talk to Bill.


“Mom!” She said loudly, tugging at my skirt.


“What is it JonBenet?” I asked in reply.


“Where is Bill?” She asked me very curiously. “I told him earlier when he came to our house that I was going to talk to him tonight at this party, Mommy.”


“Bill is over there in that chair sweetheart.” I explained to her that Bill was going to be pretending to be Santa for the night because the real Santa was too busy after his long night before.


I walked her over to the chair where the line had begun to die down, and many families were beginning to leave the party. Bill pulled JonBenet closer to him and whispered something in her ear.


“Promise you won’t tell anyone okay Princess?” Bill looked at JonBenet with those eyes that spoke for themselves. I was very curious to know what he had told her and I was sure that JonBenet would tell me in the car on the way home. But JonBenet kept her promises especially to people like Bill who she admired dearly. It was around 15 when we left the party and within seconds poor JonBenet was asleep in the backseat of the car. As I was looking at her beautiful little face, I notice Burke sitting in the very back of the car, pouting. I had almost forgotten he was even at the party, but I didn’t say anything to him because I knew he would just whine and I had an awful headache.


John carried JonBenet to her bed and tucked her in, and then he came straight to bed. We planned to get up early to prepare for a trip to our home away from home on Lake Michigan the next day so going to bed early was a good idea.


“Ahhhhhh, John come fast!!” I yelled at the top of my lungs. It was 500 am and at the foot of the staircase I had just found a two-and-a-half page ransom note. It said JonBenet had been kidnapped and was being held for a ransom of $118,000. The letter said that if the money was not exchanged for her later that day the child would be beheaded. I ran as fast as I could up to JonBenet‘s room to find that she was not there. Within two minutes we phoned the police and they arrived seven minutes later.


John and Fleet White, a friend of ours went searching for our daughter, and found her in the first place they looked, the basement. She was wrapped in a white blanket, tape was over her mouth, and she was bound with a nylon cord. Then evidence suggested that she was sexually assaulted, strangled and hit over the head.


Suddenly I snap back to reality and brake down. I can taste the salt of my fears, tears streaming down my face. I am terrified knowing that this is how I will forever remember my daughter. I also realize now that in a way I helped with her murder because of my crazy love for the man who I had an affair with and who I thought that I loved more than my own husband. Although JonBenet was good for the money I loved her more than life itself for she was my daughter. I had to write the ransom note!! If I hadn’t, Bill would be killed for sure. Keeping this all inside of me will be hard but I have learned that it is true that one cannot trust anyone. Why Bill did this horrible thing I will never know, he is crazed and if I could go back I would have never started things with him. No one can ever find out about our affair, I am sure that I can keep my mouth shut but…Bill? ‘Here we go’ I think to myself, and there goes my perfect life.





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Sunday, July 24, 2011

Jane Eyre

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Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre is a novel that incorporates many literary devices to help exemplify meanings and themes. One of these is symbolism. The symbols used throughout the novel exist in different situations and are used to coincide with different ideas. One of the most effective uses of symbolism in Jane Eyre is to foretell the events that occur in the book. The reader may observe that the author continuously interlinks symbolism with foreshadowing. Symbolism and foreshadowing are both constant themes in the novel. The symbol usually hints at what’s going to happen later in the book. For example, Bronte uses birds to represent freedom, which is what Jane has always wished for and finally finds by the end of the novel.


Although there is no one dominant symbol in the novel, the most significant (and the most noticeable) symbol would have to be fire. Fire is constantly reoccurring along the course of events. Fire is often associated with human vitality, while damp and cold are associated with death. A lot of narration is spent on the fire in Miss Temple’s room. The stress isn’t only on the physical comfort of fire, but also on fire as a symbol of friendship, kindness, acceptance, and comfort. “How we longed for the light and heat of a blazing fire when we got back…” (Pg.7 Vol.1) Fire can also signify passion and emotions, (like Jane and Mr. Rochester’s passion and feelings for each other).


The chestnut tree struck by lightning into two halves symbolizes the fact that Jane and Mr. Rochester are to separate. The incident in which Bertha rips apart Jan’s wedding veil symbolizes Mr. Rochester’s betrayal of his wife and Jane; and it also suggests that something may go wrong at their wedding and that the wedding was doomed.


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The moon can be seen as a symbol of mystery and deception. In the scene of Mr. Rochester’s proposal to Jane, Jane becomes a victim to deception. Mr. Rochester asks Jane if she would be his beloved. Jane wants to see him, and so she asks him to turn to the moonlight so that she can read his face.


“‘You, Jane. I must have you for my own � entirely my own. Will you be mine? Say yes, quickly.’ ‘Mr. Rochester, let me look at your face turn to the moonlight,’”


(Bronte, Pg.�Vol.)


Here, the moonlight becomes a symbol of deception, mystery and evil.


There are symbolic events in the book that hint at the doomed marriage of Jane and Mr. Rochester. For instance, after Jane accepted Mr. Rochester’s proposal, they sit down under a chestnut tree, which seems to ‘be in pain,’ and the weather suddenly changes into a storm…


“But what had befallen the night? The moon was not yet set, and we were all in shadow I could scarcely see my master’s face, near as I was. And what ailed the chestnut tree? It writhed and groaned; while wind roared in the laurel walk, and came sweeping over us.”(Bronte, Pg.1 Vol.)


The fact that she could not see Mr. Rochester’s face signifies that she can’t see that he’s hiding something from her. The chestnut tree and the sudden gloomy turn of weather might symbolize their doomed marriage. Also, the next day, Jane is told that the chestnut tree had been struck by lightning during the night, and split it in half. This foretells that Mr. Rochester and Jane are to be split apart.


“It was not without a certain wild pleasure I ran before the wind delivering my trouble of mind to the measureless air-torrent thundering through space. Descending the laurel walk, I faced the wreck of the chestnut-tree; it stood up, black and riven the trunk, split down the centre, gasped ghastly. The cloven halves were not broken from each other, for the firm base and strong roots kept them unsundered below; though community of vitality was destroyed � the sap could flow no more their great boughs on each side were dead, and next winter’s tempests would be sure to fell one or both to earth as yet, however, they might be said to form one tree � a ruin; but an entire ruin.” (Bronte, Pg. 4 Vol.)


The sundered tree is a foreshadow of Mr. Rochester and Jane’s ‘soon to be sundered’ love; yet they ‘form one ruin…’


“There was no possibility of taking a walk that day. We had been wandering, indeed, in the leafless shrubbery an hour in the morning, but since dinner…the cold winter wind had brought with it clouds so somber, and rain so penetrating, that further outdoor exercise was now out of the question. I was glad of it; I never liked long walks, especially on chilly afternoons dreadful to me was the coming home in the raw twilight, with nipped fingers and toes, and a heart saddened by the chidings of Bessie, the nurse, and humbled by the consciousness of my physical inferiority to Eliza, John, and Georgiana Reed.”


(Bronte, Pg. 1 Vol.1)


Bronte seems to associate the weather with a character’s thoughts and emotions. The dreary winter coincides with Jane’s lonely, detached and abandoned feelings. The “leafless shrubbery” implies the desolation felt by Jane. This is also symbolic of her being an orphan. Leaves cover and shelter a shrub like what parents would do for their children. Jane has no living parents and lives with a cold, uncaring guardian, her Aunt Reed. At her aunt’s house, Jane was unhappy because she didn’t have anyone who loved her. “Clouds so somber” are symbolic of her downhearted feelings due to loneliness, need of affection, and lack of love. All the time that Jane stayed with her relatives, they had never shown her any affection, while all she wanted was to be loved and cared for.


“…the last sound I expected to hear in so still a region, a laugh, struck my ear. It was a curious laugh; distinct, formal, mirthless. I stopped the sound ceased, only for an instant, it began again, louder for at first, though distinct, it was very low.” (Pg.15 Vol.1) The manical laughter that Jane hears and continues to hear represents the deception and mystery throughout the book. She hears it, but the other servants hide what it is from her, as does Mr. Rochester. They allow her to believe that it’s just one of the servants…


“ ‘But you heard an odd laugh? You have heard that laugh before, I should think, or something like it?’ ‘Yes, sir there is a woman who sews here, called Grace Poole, - she laughs that way. She is a singular person.’ ‘Just so. Grace Poole � you have guessed it. She is, as you say, singular, - very…’”





Symbolism can be found throughout the story linked with foreshadowing. The symbols practically show the reader what might happen next. Bronte effectively uses foreshadowing and symbolism together in her novel.





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Sunday, July 17, 2011

My side of the Mountain

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My Side of the Mountain


Book Review


“My Side of the Mountain” is about a young boy, Sam Gribley, who is sick of New York City life and decides to move to the Catskills Mountains where his great-grandfather owned some land years earlier. The story takes place in the Catskills Mountains in New York State and covers the changing seasons. Sam gets to the mountain during the summer, and we follow him as summer turns to fall, then winter, spring and back to summer again. Each season brings new challenges for Sam.


Sam lives alone in the woods for over a year. He makes a house in a very large old growth tree. He learns how to make a fire and what kinds of foods are safe to eat. He also learns how to fish and develops skills to keep him alive. He is a boy who wants to live with nature and not harm it. Sam uses only what he needs to survive and doesn’t waste anything. For example, if his clothing needs replacing, he uses the skins of the animals he killed for food.


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The main character in the story is Sam, the survivalist boy who tries to match his wits against the wild. Along the way, he makes many new animal friends, like the Baron Weasel and a raccoon name Jessie Coon James. He caught the Baron Weasel in a trap he made one day. But the weasel got so mad that he got away. The Baron Weasel always seems to be checking up on Sam. Sam also has a friend named Jessie Coon James, who is a raccoon that Sam found when she was just born. Her mother abandoned her, so Sam fed her and kept her warm until she was old enough to go out on her own. They’ve been friends ever since. Sam’s best friend, however, is his falcon named Frightful. Without Frightful, it would be a lot harder for Sam to survive. He captured her when she was very little and trained her to go hunt food and bring it back to him. These animals are his only friends.


Although I think it was interesting to learn how he adapted to a completely different life, I think he was crazy to want to leave all the comforts of home to live in a tree with animals for friends! Sam is a very odd boy in my opinion, and I can’t relate to him at all. Why would you want animals for friends? All they talked about was about how tough it was surviving. Why would you even want to do this? What about his parents? What kind of parents would let their child just live by himself in the woods?


Now if you’re the type that wants to live in solitude and be a “Mountain Man”, this could be the book for you! Or maybe you’re a criminal who needs to hide out in the woods for a while. If that’s the case, then take this book along for some hot tips on foods to eat and how to survive out in the wild. Then again, if you are auditioning for the latest Survivor show, it should be a must on your reading list. Of course, I have to admit I did read the sequel. The book cover showed him meeting a friend and that got me interested. The friend was his sister and it was similar to the first story. So I’ve had enough of wanting to live in the wilderness for now. On a scale of 1-10, I would rate this book a .





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Saturday, July 16, 2011

a cat

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what would u look like if u were a cat or a dog but you only wernt u actualy were a human but you had a bald head with like no hair and stuff like that, i think^. im so confused a bout what i just wrote its not even funny.


ok wait its actualy halarious but im so tired im not going to laugh.but who gives a dam or a river for that matter whats thae point of caring u only for get a bout it soon er or later. so its got to be better to not care athorwise who would care if u cared about what they cared about, what the heell did i just type.....u dont care ! me niether there fore we can say that no one actualy cares . do you un der stand what im saying? arwe u crying boy, want sum french crys ha ? mabe a wynikan ive only just realiswed how long 50 words is its actualy very very vey very very very evry long like your moms dick. ok ill admit its not that long ok lets all admit this is sofucking boring, i hope we can sweaar here oopsi but its still long but and how yes no non on on on on on on off ha got u!! im such a mad oak hey .i rate they should like make teethbrush free for all those people with no teeth bcos no one would ... oh fuckit im dead ahh no ways give a guy a break this has got to be 50 words atleast by now why no no no no no no no no yes , ha got u again


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Friday, July 15, 2011

Cencorship of Huck Finn

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The Censorship of Huckelberry Finn The Adventures of Huckelberry Finn has been called one of the greatest pieces of American literature, deemed a classic. The book has been used by teachers across the country for years. Now, Huck Finn, along with other remarkable novels such as Catcher in the Rye .As a teacher that supports the views that Huck Finn should be read in the classroom. I believe that this book has moral and racial lessons to teach us. This book even though it can be percieved as racist shows Huck trying to free a slave, wich shows what was actually occuring at that time. Those who think this book is racist by the repetion of the word nigger or the whole idea of Jim escaping should look at the moral of the story and how far we have come past that today. I believe that it shows students and grown-ups alike what it was like and how the slaves and slave owners thought. I believe this book can and is teaching kids about how bad and harsh slavery was and that treating a minority as a piece of property is wrong and i believe that moral can be learned from this book. The presence of the word nigger has been the main issue for censorship for Huck Finn. the book was adopted into the cirruculum while schools were still segregated and soon there after black and whites started going to school together and that raised the issue of censoring this book. Many African Americans are offended by the repetive use of the word nigger by both the white and black characters. African Americans relate this word to all the bitter years of insult and struggle in America. The word nigger to colored people of high and low degree is like a red tag to a bull, anyway that it is used it is almost always percieved as a horrible insult to there race and what they went through as a whole.


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Patience

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Patience


In the English language, it can be seen that any word can have several connotations. The word “patience,” for example, can be defined in several different ways depending on the source it comes from.


In a Websters Unabridged Dictionary (141), patience is defined as, “an ability or willingness to suppress restlessness or annoyance when confronted with delay.” On the other hand, a Rogets Abridged Dictionary (57) defines patience as, “calm endurance of a hardship, provocation, pain, delay, etc.” or, “tolerant perseverance or forbearance.” The similarities of these two definitions from separate dictionaries are that patience is a force so that someone or something can withstand or suppress something. The difference between these two dictionary definitions is that the abridged dictionary uses specific forms of the things that patience suppresses.


Patience also has several different meanings in subject dictionaries. In a Dictionary of Psychology (58), patience is defined as, “a person receiving medical, surgical, or other form of treatment for a disorder or illness.” This definition has very little to do with the common unabridged or abridged dictionary definition, but on the other hand, it has much to do with the medical field. In a Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art, patience is defined as


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One of the minor virtues in Christian allegory, widely represented in cycles of the virtues and vices in medieval art, but somewhat rare later. (5)


This source concludes that patience is a minor virtue in the Christian religion. This means that one should practice patience in everyday life. In a Dictionary of Chiches, the definition of patience is


Patience of Job � an idiom clich� meaning extraordinary patience or forbearing, as “she must have the patience of Job to look after all those children and not lose her temper.” (145)


In the story of the patience of Job, one should learn what patience is what the importance of patience is in one’s everyday Christian life. The bible illustrates that patience enables people to endure for God, and that responding correctly to all situations of life is the key to enduring happiness. It is also defined as “cheerful endurance.” This means that Patience is the ability to maintain godly character and a right spirit in different situations. This story concludes that patience is demonstrated by controlled speech, a lack of selfishness, and Godly response. It shows people that God uses trials to build our patience so we can develop the endurance necessary to live our whole life for God.


In, Rogets A-Z Thesaurus (575), patience has synonyms of forbearance, fortitude, composure, submission, endurance, stoicism, tolerance, and imperturbability. These words closely relate to the actual definition of patience because in an actual dictionary, patience is a trait when someone can hold back an urge to do something. The words that the thesaurus uses to compare to Patience are also defined as an urge or temptation.





In a pictorial source, Richard Nunemaker took a picture of a gorilla sitting in a bush with its hand under its chin thinking or waiting for something. This picture captures the word patience because the gorilla seems like it is enduring something painful or suppressing something.





In a movie entitled, “Dogma,” patience is used many times. This movie is about how two angels fall from heaven and have to walk through the gates of a church so that they can get back into heaven. What they don’t realize is that once they walk into the gates of the church, they will prove God wrong and unmake existence. During the movie, one of the fallen angels named Bartleby says


The humans have besmirched everything bestowed on them. They were given Paradise, they threw it away. They were given this planet, they destroyed it. They were favored best among all His endeavors, and some of them dont even believe He exists! And in spite of it all, Hes shown them infinite fing patience at every turn. What about us? I asked you...once to lay down the sword because I felt sorry for them. What was the result? Our expulsion from Paradise! WHERE WAS HIS INFINITE FING PATIENCE THEN?! ITS NOT RIGHT, ITS NOT FAIR! Weve paid our debt. Dont you think its time? Dont you think its time we went home? and to do that, I think we have to dispatch of our would-be dispatchers.


Bartleby is saying that even though many people do not believe in God and sin regularly, God has persevered through his hardships and has not punished the humans. On the other hand, Bartleby and another fallen angel, Loki, were expelled from heaven for a minor offense. They are angry that God did not show them nearly as much patience as he did the humans.


A French proverb says that “Patience is bitter, but its fruit is sweet.” This means that when one is enduring patience, it is not fun at all, but after he reaches his goal or has endured something, it is worth the wait.


In a poem by Lucy Maud Montgomery entitled, “Which Has More Patience � Man or Woman?,” Montgomery comes to the conclusion that women have more patience than men. She shows this by saying that when men are presented with work, they will protest about it very much. She also says that when an man is obligated to wait, he will be very impatient the entire time. This relates to patience because the actual dictionary definition is one who can endure something, and this entire poem is about how men cannot do this.


In another poem by Emily Dickinson entitled, “Patience � has a quiet Outer,” Dickinson writes


Patience�has a quiet Outer�


Patience�Look within�


Is an Insects futile forces


Infinites�between�


Scaping one�against the other


Fruitlesser to fling�


Patience�is the Smiles exertion


Through the quivering�


This poem describes how every person in the world has infinite patience hidden inside of them. When Dickinson says that “Patience-is the smile’s exertion through the quivering,” she means that patience is what provokes someone to do something even when they are not sure if they want to do it.





In another poem by Elizabeth Barrett Browning entitled, “Patience Taught By Nature,” Browning writes


O DREARY life, we cry, O dreary life !


And still the generations of the birds


Sing through our sighing, and the flocks and herds


Serenely live while we are keeping strife


With Heavens true purpose in us, as a knife


Against which we may struggle ! Ocean girds


Unslackened the dry land, savannah-swards


Unweary sweep, hills watch unworn, and rife


Meek leaves drop year]y from the forest-trees


To show, above, the unwasted stars that pass


In their old glory O thou God of old,


Grant me some smaller grace than comes to these !--


But so much patience as a blade of grass


Grows by, contented through the heat and cold.


In this poem Browning asks God for patience to make her life better. She is clearly having some kind of problem with her life and she wants patience so that she can get through it.


Periodicals and newspapers use patience in the way it is used in a normal dictionary. They relate to patience as a persistence, a willingness to suppress something, or a calm endurance.


In a bibliography on George Washington, he is described as having many important traits. One of the most important of his traits the bibliography says is patience.


In an atlas there is a small town in Pennsylvania named Patience. This town has a very small population and is extremely rural. The reason this town might be named patience is because it has a very small population and is waiting to become a thriving city someday.


In three separate interviews on patience, all three people answered in a way that relates to the definition in an actual dictionary. All of the interviewees are relatives in my family and took about two minutes to think about what their own definition of patience is. The first interviewee, my sister Kelley Schott, said that patience is, “an ability to suppress an urge to do something.” The second interviewee, my father David Schott, said that it is, “being able to not do something, or wait.” Finally, the third interviewee, my uncle George Schott, said that patience is defined as, “being able to wait for something.” The similarity between these interviews is that all of the people being interviewed thought of patience the same way that it is defined in the dictionary.





In my own artwork, I depicted patience as a man sitting on top of an hourglass seemingly waiting for something. The reason I chose to use this type of picture is because the man is painted as waiting for something, and he is sitting on the hourglass because it is taking time for him to wait for the thing he is thinking about. The picture relates to the actual dictionary definition of patience because the man seemingly waiting for something to happen.


Patience can have many different meanings. With different sources of literature, artwork, and modern ideas, patience can be viewed as many different things. The word can shift in meaning from many different sources because each source focuses on a different idea or topic.


Bibliography


Agnes, Michael (ed.). Roget’s A-Z Thesaurus. Cleveland, Ohio Macmillan, 1.


Colman, Andrew. Dictionary of Psychology. New York Oxford University Press, 001.


Costello, Robert (ed.). Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. New Your Random House Reference & Information Publishing, 18.


“Dogma.” Movie. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Lauren Films, 1.


Gregory, Dolores. “One ‘Lesson’ Too Many.” The Washington Post. /4/0, C04.


Hall, James. Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art. United States Westview Press, 174.


Kirkpatrick, Betty. Chiches. New York, New York St. Martin’s Griffin, 16.


Metcalf, Jonathan (ed.). Oxford Illustrated American Dictionary. London, England DK Publishing, 18.


No Author. “Washington, George.” Online. /5/0. http//search.biography.com/print_record.pl?id=058.


Nunemaker, Richard. “Patience.” Online. /5/0. www.artwanted.com/imageview.cfm?id=118.


“Patience �has a Quiet Outer” Online. /5/0 www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poem=1087.


“Patience Taught by Nature” Online. /5/0 www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poem=175.


“Patience.” Guns N’ Roses. CD-ROM.


“Patience.” Online. /5/0. www.billhamlights.com/cgi-bin/cpsearchbw.cgi.


Schott, David. Interrogative Interview. /6/0.


Schott, George. Interrogative Interview. /6/0.


Schott, Kelley. Interrogative Interview. /6/0.


“Shakespeare.” Online. /5/0. www.concordance.com/cgi-bin/1wrdr.pl


Shales, Tom. “A Compelling Story, Numbingly Repeated.” The Washington Post. //0, C01.


“Which Has More Patience � Man or Woman?” Online. /5/0 www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poem=705.


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Thursday, July 14, 2011

The age of democratic revolution. Is this a good description of the period 1970-1848?

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‘The age of the democratic revolution. Is this a good description of the period 1770-1848?


In order to assess the revolutions of the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century it is essential to look at the main revolutions the American Revolution, the French Revolution and the Revolutions of 148.


The American War of Independence can be said to have sparked the tide of Revolutions from this period. The Americans, who had outgrown the status which Britain had accorded them, sought independence from Britain and its economic exploitation.


Economic exploitation such as the ‘Navigation Acts’ which restricted colonial trade, which consequently made smuggling universal and the enforcement of taxes to pay for Greenville’s army.


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The stamp act provoked riots throughout the Colonies and shortly after, it was abolished. The Townsend act of 1767 brought even more unrest to the colonies as British troops were called in to restore order in Boston in 1770 and 5 people were killed. In April 1770 a ‘tea act’ was passed, which granted a monopoly on tea trade to an East India tea company. But colonists refused to buy this tea and instead, smuggled tea from elsewhere. 177 then saw the ‘Boston Tea Party’ at which tea chests at the port of Boston were tossed into the sea by colonists.


George III was outraged and closed the port of Boston, his so-called ‘intolerable acts’ then gave the Massachusetts governor the power to billet soldiers in colonists’ houses, annulled the colony’s charter and moved the capital from Boston to Salem. Colonists then responded by forming the first continental congress in Philadelphia on 5 September 1774. Colonists wanted civil disobedience against the British authorities in protest at the acts. At this stage Independence was rejected and it wasn’t until later that the faction that sought it gained support.


The Battle of Lexington and Concord then began the Revolution, the Second Continental Congress met in May 1775 and a continental army was adopted but not yet prepared to overthrow the crown. After the battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775 the congress decided that it could no longer accept the British crown, and the American Declaration of Independence was drafted by Thomas Jefferson, revised by Benjamin Franklin and John Adams and was formally passed on 4 July 1776. The Colonists now sought Independence from Britain which had previously interfered with their freedom. British regulation, taxation and Monarcharial government from England had only brought the divided colonies together.


They were now willing to stand up to Britain but they were not the only country that resented Britain. France, the Netherlands, Spain and Russia also helped out, the American Revolution thus became part of a larger war in which most of the great powers participated to some extent. Surprisingly, the war had went well for the British, in 1780 they made gains in the South but American guerillas won.


The Treaty of Paris in 178 recognised American Independence from Britain and borders were set.


Some people argue that the Revolution can be seen as confirmation of a process that was already taking place, America had been looking after itself for years, Britain was preoccupied with war and they had become used to autonomy � their government had matured and just needed to break free from Britain.


The American Revolution was the first successful large scale revolt against an imperial power. It is significant to both American and world history.


The Revolution saw two movements


1. A contest for home rule � a break away from Britain


. Democratisation of America � a break away from established order. There were disagreements over how to achieve this. Conservatives wanted Home Rule but not Internal democracy, the Radicals wanted democracisation.


By this stage the war was over, there was no longer a common enemy against America, there were conflicts against different states, they needed a stronger central government so they discussed the constitution in Philadelphia. The American Constitution was developed for this weak nation, it holds America together, a unifying factor that is of symbolic value to the people. It gives the world its first written constitution. But the American Constitution then raises the question of whether or not there was a Revolution. The Constitution can be seen as a counter revolution by the elite. Alexis de Tocqueville particularly criticized democracy in America at that time, by stressing the power of the presidents and the possibility that American society could become authoritarian rather than democratic, a dictatorship of the majority, rather than a minority.


The level of democracy can also be criticized � in the outcome of the French Revolution. The period of 178-17 saw the end of monarcharial rule in France. Sparked by the need to raise taxes due to financial crisis from wars, the new named ‘national assembly’ demanded to limit the King’s powers. Power began to be transferred from the monarchy to the national assembly, but the King’s consent was needed to pass new laws. Armed forces were raised to support the national assembly, citizens took up arms and were commanded by Lay Fayette.


Soon the old regime was abolished and citizens were treated equally due to new laws and a new voting system. The most significant document was the ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen’, influenced by the American Declaration of Independence, England’s bill of rights in 1688 and Rousseau’s ideas, it proclaimed the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity, the right to own property and the right to resist oppression.


But soon, fears of a counter-revolution spread, especially when the ‘Civil Constitution of the Clergy’ was brought in in 1770 by the national assembly. It stated that all priests would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the civil state but many refused, to whom the pope have his backing. This proved opposition to the revolution. These changes led to many nobles emigrating and reaction amongst many children. It was a counter-revolutionary movement.


The King welcomed it and hoped that the revolution would self-destruct because of it. After an attempted flee, the King was forced to accept the new government. On the September 17 the previously renamed constituent assembly then became the national convention, this was known as the first day of liberty, this marked the beginning of a bloody phase in the revolution. King Louis IX was then tried and executed, the monarchy was abolished and france declared a Republic.


Counter-revolutionary movements led to thousands being guillotined. There was also conflict within the national convention itself, this was the reason that many promises, such as free primary education, income-based taxes etc. were never carried out.


In 1775 the national convention was replaced by a 5-man directory � was this the beginning of the end of France’s newly found democracy? This 5-man directory was troubled by war, economic problems and continuing political intrigues, and in October 17 turned to Napoleon Bonaparte in an attempt to gain military support against a number of political leaders who were plotting to overthrow its powers. The revolution was finally brought to an end when Napoleon seized power as dictator on November 17.


The French Revolution was the most significant revolution of all, it drew together earlier strands of enlightenment ideas which appealed to radicals and reformers throughout Europe both in its time and afterwards esample Ireland had some similarities to france in the eighteenth century and sought help from France during Napoleon’s reign. Ireland came very close to overthrowing its government but the movement failed. However, it proved that true Union between Ireland and England would be impossible. The French Revolution proved that an absolutist government could be overthrown, it sparked political ideas such as Liberalism, Socialism and Anarchism. But it has a distinct Irony, it practically turned a full circle, with one man back in charge with all the trappings of a monarchy.


It is certain that 1“the French Revolution sooner or later came to influence all Western civilization”. The spreading of French ideas was unstoppable as the revolutions of 1848 unfolded.


“The Revolutions of 1848 ignited the countries of Europe in a way that would not be repeated until 18. Violence broke out because legal and parliamentary movements for change were frustrated”.


The Italian revolution was sparked by Pope Pius IX’s reforms in 1846-47, Charles Albert of Piedmont responded by granting a freer press but Matternich was furious and sent Austrian troops in on July 1847 to reinforce the garrison of Ferrara in the Romagna. Pope Pius IX then fled after defeats in Lombardy and Venice. Mazzini declared a Republic, but not for long, in 184 after the abdication of Charles Albert, Lombardy was reverted to Austria, Venice and part of the Piedmontese territory which was also ceded. Rome was then restored to the pope by the French and Gen Oudinot was sent to besiege the city but was defeated by the Roman republican army. The Neapolitans were also defeated by Garibaldi but in spite of all this, French troops succeeded in entering Rome and the Pope returned in 1850. Another failed Revolution.


After the Napoleonic wars, a long period of peace had followed but from 1815, tension and discontent grew all over Europe, Austria was included in it. The Austrian Empire was in complete chaos, Austrian forces had crushed the Czech revolt in Prague and the pacified Vienna. Austria recovered Lombardy � Italy from the nationalists and crushed the major revolt in Hungary in 184. Ferdinand abdicated in favour of Franz Joseph. Austrian forces then took the rest of northern Italy. For the next 10 years the government was revived, there were some reforms but the nationalist aspirations of the non-German speaking people of the empire were suppressed.


Hungary had begun to adopt nationalist ideas in the 1840’s. Magyar as the new language replaced Latin, nationalist feeling grew among the Croats, Serbs, Slovaks and Romanians. New laws were then introduced in April 1848 which declared legal equality and united Transylvania with Hungary.


But soon civil war began to break out from the summer onwards. The new leader Kossuth then declared Hungary’s independence in 184, he then became governor. The Hungarian army was defeated only in late summer 184.


Germany had also attempted a revolution in 1848 which led the government to introduce liberal measures. Chancellor Matternich fled and a parliament was summoned. Also, a national assembly was convened in Prussia. But in Frankfurt, the German assembly ended in failure, along with all hopes of uniting Germany under a Liberal constitution.


The Revolutions of 1848 play a major role in the construction of nineteenth century European history. Some of the revolutions in this era had republican ideas, but others were motivated by economic grievances. None of the revolutions enjoyed any lasting success and most were violently suppressed within a few months but nevertheless, 1848 marks a year of great significance in the history of Europe.





So what defines the term ‘Revolution’? Norman Davies believes that it was the French Revolution, which gave the word ‘Revolution’ its full, modern meaning. He then claims that it means “no more political upheaval, but the complete overthrow of a system of government together with its social, economic and cultural foundations”. He then mentions various other revolutions such as the Roman revolution, the ‘scientific revolution’, the ‘military revolution’, the Industrial revolution, and even a ‘sexual revolution’, but stresses that not all of them deserve the title.


The period of 1770-1848 should not necessarily be deemed as one of political and democratic revolutions. The Industrial revolution for example describes a range of technological and organizational changes. The term also refers to the period of ‘modernization’. It began in the second half of the eighteenth century and it must be stressed that the industrial revolution did not consist of sudden and dramatic change but was actually a long drawn out affair which varied from country to country.


Some argue that the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries may have witnessed a type of ‘women’s revolution’. Early European campaigners fought for women’s right to own property, to access to higher education, and also to vote. It was not until the twentieth century that the emphasis of a so-called ‘women’s movement’ shifted to employment. Although some argue that women are still treated unequally and have less opportunities than men, so we could say that the assumption of the succession of a so-called ‘women’s revolution’ is still debatable.


The period of 1770-1884 may be defined as an ‘age of democratic revolution’ but it depends on how we interpret the word ‘revolution’ and what meaning we attach to it, we also need to stress the fact that the main ‘democratic’ revolutions in this era, were failure.





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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Pearl Harbor

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“Pearl Harbor vividly evokes an era of American innocence and the explosive moment that abruptly ended it”(calendar live 1). America had just worked its way out of the great depression and there was a mood of cautious and innocent optimism, which was somewhat, tethered by war in Europe. However on December 7th 141 was the day innocence died and began an era of patriotism, which has yet to be equaled. President Roosevelt stated, “December 7th 141-a date that will live in infamy”(Pearl Harbor the Movie and the Moment). The movie Pearl Harbor directed by Michael Bay and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer & Michael Bay accurately depicts the historical facts of World War II as well as the mind set before and after the attack at Pearl Harbor.


The Attack at Pearl Harbor was a surprise to the people in the United States. There were 11 navy nurses that were stationed at Pearl Harbor. If the United States knew that Japan was going to attack at Pearl Harbor they would have moved all of their troops. Japan didn’t like the United States very much because they didn’t have very many natural resources and they depended on the United States. The United States started to cut off exports and imports especially oil. At that time the American Stock Market had crashed and Japan was one of the first nations to get hit by the economic depression. There were many things that made Japan attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor.


The movie Pearl Harbor was very accurate to the real life event. The movie mostly focused on the hospitals stationed at Pearl Harbor. There were ,88 people killed and ,000 people injured at Pearl Harbor. With that many people injured everyone started to go to the hospital. Once more and more people went to the hospital the hospital became more and more unsanitary. There were so many injured people that they didn’t have any room for them. They had to find places in the kitchen just to put the people. There weren’t enough doctors and nurses to help everyone and they could only take the people who might have a chance to live. The way the movie showed that they needed blood donors by asking Rafe and Danny to give blood. The hospital was one of the events that made the movie seem accurate to the real life event.


The tests in the movie were very similar to the ones that pilots really have to go through. The ages of 0 through 0 had to have eyesight of at least 0/40. Rafe in the movie was scared that he wasn’t going to be able to pass the test. If you don’t pass the test than you can’t be able to fly and that’s on thing that Rafe loved to do. The pilot also needed a college education or a high school diploma. The eagle squadron had to go through many medical exams. The tests were very strict on who they would take or wouldn’t take for the Eagle Squadron.


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The wardrobe was accurate compared to the real event at Pearl Harbor. The every day life clothes that they wore in Hawaii was pretty accurate. They wore Hawaiian shirts but they weren’t as flowery printed as they are now in Hawaii. All the uniforms were being updated at that time. They wore helmets that were worn in World war I. Once the United States went into World War II than the wardrobe started to change. The wardrobe was a big part of the accuracy of the movie to the real event.


There were a couple big historical changes that were made from the director and the producer. The whole love story was just to make the movie more entertaining to the viewers. Kids were getting married right before they went off to war, but the whole plot story about Rafe, Danny and Evelyn was not true. Another thing that the producer and director changed was in the beginning when Evelyn was giving the eye test to Rafe and he failed. The Evelyn let him pass because he kept on begging to pass him. That wouldn’t have happened in the real life. The Military is too strict to be able to let some just go with out passing the test. There weren’t very many changes that the director and produced made but the ones that they did make were big.


This movie was a big hit because it’s a reflection of the time period that we live in now. In movies today we look for some action pack, interesting a movie that keeps the viewer on their seat. Love stories always entertain people and want to watch more. Pearl Harbor is a big blockbuster video. It has all of those up to date qualities that everyone is looking for in this time period.


The point of view of this movie that the producer and the director were trying to make impacted everyone who watched the movie. Michael Bay and Jerry Bruckheimer made this movie for the survivors to live through the event again and try to get over the whole thing that had happened. It also showed the kids of today’s generation what really had happened and how horrible it was to live through what had happened and how it was all a surprise on the United States. We lost a bunch of people and everyone should know what happened and why it happened. The point of view of the movie really impacted people through out the country.


The political and historical views of the film producer and the director were a big impact on the United States. When the director and the producer were getting information about the whole event. They talked to the survivors of the people at Pearl Harbor. They saw the tears in the survivor’s eyes and knew that they had to make a movie about it. The whole event changed America’s feelings. The director really liked how the whole United States got together and helped each other out. The patriotism hasn’t ever been that strong. We lost so many innocent people, but it made the United States come together and become one big nation.


“Attack at Pearl Harbor, 141.” [http//www.ibis.com/pearl.htm] May 00.


“Blood Donors are called in” Honolulu Star-Bulletin 1st Extra, 7 Dec. 141.


“Hour of Attack.” Honolulu Star-Bulletin 1st extra, 7 Dec. 141.


“Pearl Harbor.” The World Book Encyclopedia. 001 ed.


Pearl Harbor the Movie and the moment, New York A new market pictorial movie


book,001.


“The Pearl Harbor Attack, 7 December 141.” [Http//www.history. navy.mil/faq/faq66-


1.htm] May 00.


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Evaluation research and Consumer Reports

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A consumer report is usually an article or publication that examines one product in its different brands and presentations on the market. I chose a frozen pizza consumer report to talk about it.


This consumer report has five parts. Different from what one should expected, the first part contains the findings of the study. The second part tells us how the study was carried out and other parts of the findings. The third part gives the facts about pizza and other parts of the findings. The recommendations are given in the fourth part, and finally, the report includes an extra bonus that talks about the kinds of pizza with unconventional toppings.


Maybe we should name these parts of the consumer report. We can call them results, methodology, introduction, and discussion. Now we can compare this study to an evaluation research. In order to do a comparison, I will point out the similarities and the major differences between both.


Similarities


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Formulation of the research question. In both cases the questions are What is happening? How does it work?


Usefulness. A consumer report and an evaluation are intended for use. Both are made to help people to make the right decisions.


Judgmental Quality. This is maybe the strongest similarity. Both compare “what is it” with “what should be”.


Differences


Role conflicts. In consumer analyses there are not interpersonal frictions because in essence, the consumer report is about a product or a service and it has little or no interest in people.


Allegiance. While the evaluation research has obligations with who funds the study, interest in policymakers, practitioners, and others, a consumer report is completely consumer oriented.


Study design. Although there are a variety of research designs for evaluating processes, it is different from the consumer report analysis. The consumer report only compares facts, for example the cost per unit or quality of the product. The consumer report just tests the product and reports the results.


Sampling. The ways in which the participants can be chosen is another difference between the two kinds of studies. The sampling in the consumer report is the whole population of available products in the market. There is not a real sampling, or randomness, purposive, or anything like that.


Action setting. The tests of a consumer report analysis are made in a completely controlled environment (if it is the case). The evaluation takes place in the middle of the action, where the conflicts and events are.


Data collection. The most common sources for the evaluation research are interviews, observations, records, questionnaires, etc. But the consumer report is limited to testing the entire population of services or products of interest.


Interpretation. In the evaluation, the researcher interprets the data. The consumer report results cannot give anybody’s point of view.


Publication. The contents of an evaluation report are much richer than the consumers report. The evaluation is careful with the context, the stakeholders, the limitations of the findings, transcriptions, and lot more things.


At the same time, the major difference and similarity are the recommendations. Both studies give advice at the end. Consumer report gives advice about the best product or service, but the evaluation goes further. The evaluation is not only a score or label for programming, its purpose is to contribute to the improvement of the program.





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Tuesday, July 12, 2011

¡§Ode to a Nightingale¡¨ vs. ¡§Manfred¡¨

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In ¡§Ode to a Nightingale,¡¨ the world of human being is implicated as full of sufferings and hardships, in terms of ¡§weariness, fever, fret, groan.¡¨ The speaker sought ways, such as alcohol (vintage) and drug (opium), to get rid of these sufferings. But, the song of nightingale offered him another choice, which he devotedly embraced, to ¡§leave the world unseen¡¨ and join the bird to ¡§fade away into the forest dim.¡¨ Then, he fled to the state of the bird through ¡§the viewless wings of Poesy,¡¨ i.e. ¡§imagination,¡¨ the highly admired power in ¡§Romantic period.¡¨ Finally, he was turned down by the power of fancy and tolled back to his sole self in the human world, ¡§where palsy shakes a few, sad, last gray hairs, where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies.¡¨ What kind of people would long so eagerly to escape from the reality? In my opinion, people, represented in this piece, must be powerless, and unable to change the world and overcome the barriers in the real world. And compare to the immortality of nightingale¡¦s joy, human is tiny and short in the universe.





On the other hand, Byron¡¦s ¡§Manfred¡¨ owns magic power to compel the spirit. He was created as a hero whose ¡§power and will¡¨ reach beyond the limits of that human clay. Manfred, even though, looked for the ¡§self-oblivion¡¨ as the speaker in ¡§Ode to a Nightingale, but he fought so bravely, as he said ¡§Thou hast no power upon me , that I feel; Thou never shalt possess me.¡¨ Apparently, the human being in ¡¨Manfred¡¨ was endowed with not only the outside strength (the magic power), but also the strong willing power, so that he can not be tempted or yielded by either good or evil thoughts. Although, he eventually died, his own ¡§immortal mind¡¨ still remains.





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Monday, July 11, 2011

Pearl Jam

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In a world so saturated with images and experiences of the realities of human nature, few people have had the courage to confront the issues and situations of our present the situation. Of all the different types of people who have been courageous and strong enough to fight this hopeless but noble battle, few expected our even realize that the band Pearl Jam remains a stable force in this category of fighters. Pearl Jam fights with its words, actions, and its music, inspiring thousands of fans to think and react to injustice, fear, and often painful experience of living in this world.


The Seattle Scene grew out of a rebellion against the Yuppie culture that sprawled in fishing town during the 180’s. The popular bands of the time stopped making the extra trek to Seattle to perform, and it was this lack of music that sprawled hundreds of often connected bands to form. Bars and clubs became the perfect spot for the local community of bands and their fans to gather and enjoy the music. The music was heavily influenced by rock and punk but contrary to popular belief, it was not a particular sound that defined the Seattle Scene. Lack of concern for success and a common knowledge that there was no chance for commercial success in Seattle that created the emotion and purity of the music. The bands that stuck together with no hope for a future where those that truly loved music. This climate gave birth to some of the most powerful and moving music and the most influential bands to date. It was the creation of Sub Pop, the definitive Seattle independent record label which brought this scene to attention of the world. The two heads of Sub Pop, Bruce Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman add more stuff here using Screaming Life book.


A product of Seattle’s newly coined “grunge” scene was the band Green River. With conflicting thoughts about the future of the band, the group split in 1. The band’s guitarist, Stone Gossard, and bassist, Jeff Ament, together formed Mother Love Bone. Unfortunately, the lead singer, Andrew Wood, became the grunge scene’s first casualty. Wood died of a heroin overdose on the eve of the band’s first tour. Unable to regroup after the death of Wood, the band split in 1. Gossard and Ament recruited Mike McCready, a veteran of the Seattle scene, along with Matt Cameron from the band Soundgarden to record some tracks while looking for a lead singer. The musicians tapped a friend, Jack Irons, a drummer for the Red Hot Chili Peppers to help them in their search. Irons passed the tape of tracks the group had recorded to Eddie Vedder, a musician he had meet while playing in San Diego.


Eddie Vedder had moved to Seattle in 1 with his family. Vedder dropped out of high school before his senior year in pursuit of a future as a singer/ songwriter. He joined the band Bad Radio, known for there distinctive pop sound. During this time, Vedder soaked up as much knowledge and experience as the San Diego music scene could provide him with. One of his favorite places to meet traveling musicians and learn about the record industry was working for free as a gofer at Bacchanal, a popular San Diego venue. It was there that Vedder meet Jack Irons. The lasting impression that the charming Vedder had on Irons proved to be the crucial link between the Seattle musicians and the talented Eddie Vedder, and in late 10 the band began to come together.


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Eddie Vedder was greatly inspired from the rush of emotions and memories from his past that he experienced while listening to the tape he received from Irons. Immediately, he began to write lyrics to the songs. Vedder caught the first flight to Seattle where he meet Stone Gossard, Jeff Ament, Mike McCready, and Matt Cameron. The group immediately went to the studio where they recorded 11 songs in five days. This session gave birth to the powerful songs “Jeremy”, which was inspired by a true story of a Texas student that commited suicide in his English classroom. “Alive” was inspired by a conversation Vedder had with his mother when he was thirteen in which she revealed that the man he thought was his biological father was actually his stepfather and that his real father was a distant family friend, a man Vedder had meet on occasion, that had recently died of multiple sclerosis. (Colapinto and Boehlert, 16, p.50). The band called itself Mookie Blaylock, after the famous basketball player, but after Mookie Blaylock himself objected, the group changed their name to Pearl Jam. The band soon signed with Epic and released their debut album, Ten, in August of 11. (Colapinto and Boehlert, 16, p.51). Initially, Ten’s sales where low, but after Nirvana released Nevermind, the popularity of Ten increased dramatically and the album’s first single “Alive” was played in heavy rotation on the radio and MTV. (Colapinto and Boehlert, 16, p.50).





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