Monday, October 22, 2012

constantly stirred, but never shaken

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George Spater and Ian Parsons write a genuine and historical biography of Leonard and Virginia Woolf in A Marriage of True Minds An Intimate Portrait of Leonard and Virginia Woolf. They take pride in composing this book “in a clear and lucid way without affectation or ‘fine writing’” (p.xi). At times this biography can seem rather dry, but these authors offer a glimpse into the marriage and works of Leonard and Virginia Woolf. George Spater is a friend of Quentin Bell, Virginia’s nephew, and Ian Parsons is the husband of Leonard’s later companion Trekkie. These friends started this biography while Leonard Woolf was still alive. Therefore, their accuracy of events is even better than Leonard’s own autobiography. Spater and Parsons are attempting to present the real life of an exuberant couple, although they seem more transfixed on Virginia and Leonard is merely her support. Nonetheless, they try to present the Woolfs as real human beings with faults like everyone else. In fact, these imperfections are what make these two so interesting. Throughout this book, the authors use a sequential order within the different themes of these two lovers’ lives. By starting with “The Early Years”, the reader gets a brief background of both Leonard Woolf and Virginia Stephens, but then the biography moves on to themes like “The Apostles”, “Courtship and Marriage”, and “The Hogarth Press”. The authors have done a marvelous job at documenting the facts of these two lovers. There are tons of letters between the Bloomsbury group, and friends and family. There is also a large amount of previously unpublished pictures which help depict the years that passed by. Their documentation of facts is so great that they constantly are correcting other biographies errors, like on page 67 where they correct the date of Virginia’s second suicide attempt mentioned in Leonard’s autobiography by checking with both his and Virginia’s diaries.

Leonard Woolf, born 1880, grew up the third of nine children. His father died when he was a young boy leaving the family with insufficient funds to continue the life they previously knew. Even so, Leonard was accepted into St. Paul’s School at a reduced rate and became a leader in the Junior Debating Society. This union led way to Trinity College at Cambridge where he met up with a group of students called “The Apostles” mixing with great writers like Alfred Tennyson and Arthur Hallam. After school, he traveled well and kept in touch with the old “Apostles”, whom later set him up with Virginia.

Born 188, Virginia Stephen, grew up a very different life style, only five minutes down the road from Leonard. She lived in a very busy house full of leaders of art and intellect. Her father, Leslie Stephen and his library taught Virginia most of her knowledge. She thought of herself and her family to be better than others “never mixing with other children, almost like gods and goddesses” (p. 1). But in 185, sorrow fell over the house when her mother, Julia Stephen died. Her father plunged deep into depression, while little Virginia got a double dose because her mother was dead and her father drained her of all her energy. This caused the first of many nervous breakdowns where she heard voices.

Both Virginia and Leonard were sick, he with his trembling hands and her with her mental instabilities. Virginia had a “large desire to be loved but a slight desire to love”, while Leonard, like most people desired both (p 5). One cannot study Virginia without Leonard and vise versa; they became one with Virginia’s constant need of support and protection. In order to help control her “crazy bouts of anger”, he started controlling every aspect of her life sleep, food, and social activity (p.68). He became her “doctor, nurse, parent, semi-husband, and chief literary adviser” and there is good reason to believe that if Leonard Woolf had not regulated Virginia’s life as he did, many of her “works would have been lost to the world” (p 74).

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Between these two, there were many great literary contributions such as Leonard’s International Government, which laid the foundation for The League of Nations and later, the United Nations, or Virginia’s To The Lighthouse, one of her many popular novels, but the largest influence these two had on the world was the making of the Hogarth Press. The Hogarth Press published more than 400 books, which were works of unusual distinction, the list of authors “of this youthful venture cannot be matched by any large established publishing firm over any equal period” (p110). It was very much a collaborated effort of Virginia’s artistic touch and Leonard’s business decisions.

Spater and Parsons use varying sentence structure to engage the average reader. The combination of simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentence structure in the various paragraph arrangements allows the reading to rarely become repetitive. The authors seem so concerned with being informative that their imagination is not allowed to take flight. Even though one would believe that such an eccentric couple would make it easy to construct a biography full of life and excitement. However, they do attempt to spice it up with a few amusing sayings like “Virginia took to pen and ink like some people took to gin” (p10). Spater and Parsons have so few philosophic comments that they are undetectable. It seems that they are being careful not to step on anyone’s toes. It is a very “nice” essay, with nothing too harsh or gutsy.

The title, A Marriage of True Minds, is very appropriate. It comes from Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116 which deals with true love and how it is unbreakable and surpasses even time. When speaking of these Leonard and Virginia Woolf, one cannot separate their lives and make much sense out of it. They come as a pair with an “ever fixed mark”.

The worth of the book was fine, but not very exciting. Virginia was much more colorful and Leonard had an incredibly adventurous life. I wanted to know more about their marriage and the difficulties they experienced, but that was all diluted in this biography. There was little talk about their extra-marital affairs or of their frequent vacationing with and away from one another. I did, however, enjoy the letters and pictures of the Bloomsbury group and The Apostles. The idea of being able to surround yourself with knowledgeable thinkers is astonishing. Nonetheless, I would not recommend this book to another student because there are better biographies out there about Virginia Woolf.



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blade runner

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Blade runner is a movie that was released in the early 180’s. This movie was originally a text novel written by Phillip K, Dick and directed in a video by Ridly Scott. Blade runner is a science fiction film mainly for the fact of its importance in science and how fictional it would have been in the time of the making. Blade runner is set in November 01 in America, LA.

Blade runner is am outlook of the future, where the most ordinary people have left and travelled to outer world colonies. Where there is no middle class citizens, just the lower people who seem to struggle to survive. This movie is set in the future where genetic engineering has already been introduced and done. There are six replicants that are genetically engineered beings who have returned to earth to face their creator. They are being hunted down by so called humans to be retired for causing trouble and being an inconvenience on Earth. The blade runner says. This is where blade runner comes in. Blade runner is a retired police officer who has just been brought back to his job once again. His job is to retire all of the nexus six replicants. Replicants are like any other machine. The blade runner says, “Theyre either a benefit or a hazard. If theyre a benefit, its not my problem”.

The only replicants that we know of are Leon, Roy, Zhora, Pris and a replicant who has been zapped, they are the ones who have returned back to earth to face their creator Tyrell for programming them to only live a certain period of time which is four years. The second replicant to be retired is Zhora, in the same scene Leon gets very offended by his partner’s death so attempts to kill Deckard the blade runner. As soon as this takes place, Rachel an experiment tried out by Tyrell comes to Deckard’s rescue. Rachel is not aware that she is a replicant until she has a void com test done by Deckard.

The only two replicants left to find Tyrell are Pris and Roy. They do this by going to J.F Sebastian, who is a genetic engineer that helps Tyrell. Roy goes to Tyrell for a way of getting more life. When Roy realises he can not get what he wants he decides to kill his creator by cracking his face by what could be known as his superhuman powers.

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The death of Pris enrages Roy, and using his superhuman strength takes a savage revenge on Deckard and brakes his fingers. There is a huge climax where Deckard is about to fall to his death Roy saves him so that he can feel the pain of knowing when you are going to die, and it is really believed by Deckard even though shortly after that it is Roys time to die. In this scene Roy tells Deckard “Quite an experience to live in fear, isnt it? Thats what it is to be a slave”.

One of the main themes associated in the film is that of the Asians taking over most parts of America. We are left to think if the rest of the world in ‘01’ is also part of the new Asian way of life. Another can be how advanced everything is. Even the billboards are electronic; they move and talk like people on a television would.

Blade runner is a movie that one day we might find relevant to our lives. We are only fourteen years away to what our world may become. Already the beginning of genetic engineering has begun but not yet to the extent of the film. The fact that English is hardly used any more is frightening. The only important people on earth are the ones of benefit such as police officers and scientists like Tyrell. When Bryant the police chief is trying to convince Deckard to take the case and kill the nexus six he says “ you know the score pal. If your not a cop, your little people” so if you were not of importance to Earth you didn’t matter.



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animal farm

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1. Allegory �

a. The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form.

b. A story, picture, or play employing such representation. John Bunyans Pilgrims Progress and Herman Melvilles Moby Dick are allegories.

c. A symbolic representation The blindfolded figure with scales is an allegory of justice.

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Example Jack and Jill is an allegory demonstrating the pitfalls of ambition

. Alliteration �

The repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables, as in “on scrolls of silver snowy sentences” (Hart Crane). Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal; certain literary traditions, such as Old English verse, also alliterate using vowel sounds.

For example, this sentence

I saw five fish fly past, five fish fly is an example of alliteration.

Another example of alliteration is this

She picked purple peppers, where picked purple peppers is the alliteration.

. Allusion �

1. The act of alluding; indirect reference Without naming names, the candidate criticized the national leaders by allusion.

. An instance of indirect reference an allusion to classical mythology in a poem

Example - Just as Johnny Appleseed, we are planting the seeds of a federal deficit (shortage) from which future generations will harvest bitter fruit.

Example � “ Magicians Use Allusion to allude his or her audience.

4. Antithesis �

Use of contrasting or opposing ideas/words, in such a way to dramatize the difference.

Example Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country. J.F. Kennedy - opening Address.

5. Climax �

Building to a point of intensity.

Example At the local level, the homeless are a nuisance, at the state level they are a budget item, but at the national level they are a reflection of our inhumanity

6. Hyperbole �

Language used to exaggerate.

Example Listening to this speech, is as exciting as watching paint dry.

7. Metaphor �

1. A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the worlds a stage” (Shakespeare).

. One thing conceived as representing another; a symbol “Hollywood has always been an irresistible, prefabricated metaphor for the crass, the materialistic, the shallow, and the craven” (Neal Gabler).

Example - Like a cobra, any new enemy will more likely strike when it feels... events are in its favor...” General MacArthur addressing Congress 151

8. Rhetorical Questions �

Used to stimulate an audience to think/focus on a particular idea/issue - does not seek an overt response.

Example - How can we sit here in comfort and warmth and ignore the plight of the poor, the cold, the homeless?





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analyse Seamus heaney's poem "requiem for the croppies"

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Seamus Heaney � “Requiem for the Croppies”.

The title“Requiem for the Croppies”. A requiem is a mass for the dead, in this case that is the “croppies” who were Catholic peasants from rural communities that organized themselves into an army to rebel against their Protestant suppressor. They were named so due to their short, cropped hair in the manner of the French revolutionaries.

Story The poem is about the defeat of the Croppies at Vinegar hill in 178- it commemorates their struggle and suggests that something has grown out of their sacrifice.

Structure, Language and Imagery

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The poem is written in sonnet form - fourteen lines, although without any division into sections.

The poem uses the past tense. They moved, they died, they were buried, and finally the barley grew up out of the grave. Heaney never makes these events specific to one person - the style of the poem seems almost deliberate to erase any sense of individuality; we, our or us is always used in place of “I”, “She” or “He” This seems to emphasize the way in which Heaney identifies with the Croppies not as a political movement but as a tribal group fighting against the repossession of their land into foreign hands.

In adopting a persona from the root of the English/Irish conflict, a persona so clearly on the Irish side of the battle, Heaney makes clear that this is his identity; that through this historical link he is expressing his loyalty to the Irish Catholics throughout history and not simply at Vinegar Hill.

The more generalized speaking voice also gives the poem more emotional impact because it refuses to allow the reader’s emotions to settle into distant pity as it is the voice of humanity speaking to us.

The poem both opens and closes with the image of barley. This is the small amount that the fighters have gathered and that they devote their pockets to. It is closely related to them, an image of their native environment, and their reason for fighting. Thus, in the closing line (the “barley grew up out of the grave”) the symbol of the countryside and the image of their struggle is left behind them.

The words “no kitchens on the run, no striking camp” show that the rebels were disorganized and hurried. Here, Heaney is stripping heroism down to its essentials - an idea and an action.

This is linked to the sense of urgency and desperation conveyed by the actions of the Croppies. They move “quick and sudden” and they work out their tactics as they go along (“found new tactics happening each day”) showing they have no real plan, but have just taken the idea of rebelling and acted on it without thinking.

The Croppies are fighting for their land “in our own Country” and Heaney shows that their uprising is communal by including the “priest” and “tramp”

The words “hardly marching…on the hike” describe the amateur, unprepared nature of the Croppy band.

Their Opponents are given no solid identity but they have “infantry”, “Cavalry”, and “Canon”- so much in comparison to the pitiful “Pike(s)” and “scythes” that the inexperienced Croppies have.

The surroundings receive more description than the speakers, in their uniform of great coats. It is the personified hillside that blushed not any rebel. Here, the hillside is named and is coloured with the blood. It is the actions of the fighters that words are devoted to, not their thoughts.

The words “they buried us without shroud or coffin” show that the enemy have absolutely no respect for the dead whatsoever. The barley, which the Croppies carried, grew into a crop at their grave, which was burned down by the Anglo-Protestants. It is in the last line where a more uplifting, less tragic image appears. The words “the barley grew up out of our grave” show that despite, being set on fire, the barley still grew back. This symbolizes the determined “we’ll be back” nature of the Irish, who do not give in easily. The final line is delivered in a matter-of-fact, understated tone, merely what happened, but it modifies the mood greatly. There is no death or burial here, but growth in the summer sun.

This triumphant conclusion, the final words after death, is not in spite of the thousands” who were killed in the fatal conclave, but a consequence of it. The two images are balanced by the word and. It is the necessary conclusion of the battle that something remains and grows.

Theme

Heaney uses the specific image of Irish freedom, and of the 178 rebels, to explore the theme of life and death. The life of the idealist and fighter is unsatisfactory. There is no rest, no relaxation, no kitchens on the run, no striking camp. All men are reduced to one level. The weak must fight on the sly, and hope that no fatal conclave is in store and that new tactics will buy them time.

Yet destruction may come, a hillside soaked in blood. Given sufficient power of opposition, it will be brought about. The life lived, and its ending then becomes unsatisfactory. Life is a broken wave, and so might be death.



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A fever in salem

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Sudden Halt

The Salem witch trials were something amazing, something horrifying that has never happened in America since. Salem Village was established in the 160’s about five miles away from Salem town. The village became independent of Salem town, and in 168 the village put up its own church. Samuel Parris was the first minister. It was in his house during 16 that the first fits of Betty Parris, his daughter, and Abigail Williams, his niece, began. It was in January of 16, that Betty and Abigail started their fits, babbling, and accusations of witchcraft. With the girls continuing to have these fits, they led to accusations of many people. The people of Salem had no choice but to believe the girls, because the girls were relatives of the minister, and because the people were so afraid of Satan. The village of Salem believed these young girls for almost ten months, from January to the end of October. By October, of 16, the accusations had stopped; the people who were accused and in jail were being let out on bail, on the basis that there wasn’t enough or any substantial evidence to convict them. As one proceeds to the end of Frances Hill’s book, A Delusion of Satan, several key points are brought to the reader’s attention to prove why this witch trial came to a sudden halt, after only a couple months of accusations. Through a series of events, people in Salem came to doubt the girls’ accusations; thus, ending the trials.

The girls might have thought they were winning people over during the hearings; however, when a young man decided to speak up during one of the trials, he told everyone about a knife he had broken earlier in the day. One of the girls had cried out during Sarah Good’s trial that she was stabbed in the breast with a knife. The girl then showed the people part of the blade. That was when a young man, “came forward to say that the day before, when the afflicted girl was nearby, he happened to break his knife and threw the upper part away. He showed the court a knife handle with a section of blade still attached. The two pieces fit; they were two parts of one knife” (Hill 166). Although the pieces of the knife had fit together, the court saw nothing of it and told the girl to stop lying and to continue on. Even though the court didn’t think this was an important factor at the time, it was a start. The villagers could see the girls were starting to lie, and this resulted in a few starting to doubt the stories of the girls.

One of the most memorable deaths during the Salem witch trials was that of George Burroughs. Burroughs was a former minister in Salem and Salisbury. Burroughs was brought to trial on August fifth; the reason he was brought to trial in the first place was because of his unusual strength; the girls also claimed they had seen his last two wives, and the wives said Burroughs murdered them, and so he was accused of being a wizard. On August nineteenth, Burroughs was taken to Gallows Hill to be hanged. This is when everything started to turn against the accusations of him being involved with witches or Satan. As Burroughs was about to be hung, the strangest thing happened in the eyes of Puritans; he started to say his own prayer. Then, “Burroughs recited the Lord’s Prayer without a single mistake” (Hill 17). As he was reciting the prayer perfectly, the villagers had to have been thinking is it possible that Burroughs was innocent of all charges? Witches and people associated with Satan weren’t supposed to be able to recite the Lord’s Prayer perfectly like he did. When Burroughs recited it, “the crowd heard the words as they had never heard them before. They may have wondered about the all too apparent lack of forgiveness of the God they believed in and the men who represented Him” (Hill 17). Then heads started to turn; some people in the crowd even shed tears, because his prayer was so well worded, and uttered with such composedness. When the girls saw the crowd starting to cry they rushed right over to him and told the crowd, they saw a black man talking to Burroughs, and Cotton Mather helped out by saying Burroughs was not even a properly ordained minister. Even with Cotton and the girls trying to convince the villagers Burroughs was evil, the villagers still started to wonder, how could a witch/wizard come up with such beautiful words, and make them sound so good.

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With the villagers starting to have doubts from the knife incident and Burroughs’ reciting of the lord’s prayer, Increase Mathers convinced the rest of the villagers when he wrote about the trials, and what should happen at them to prove who is and is not a witch. Increase Mather, father of Cotton, wrote an essay called, Cases of Conscience. Increase wrote that,” It were better that ten suspected witches should escape, than that one innocent person should be condemned” (Hill 16). Increase also says that, “I hope the thinking part of mankind will be satisfied, that there was more than that which is called spectre evidence for the conviction of the persons condemned” (Hill 16). The girls insisted on spectral evidence, but with Increase saying it shouldn’t be allowed, the girls lost their major way to accuse people. With Increase’s essay being read by many in the court, opinions began to sway, and the accusations were coming to a sudden halt, with the help of Sir William Phipps. Phipps, one of Increase’s dearest friends and governor, put an end to the imprisonment of witchcraft soon after his good friend’s essay on October 1th. Phipps stopped the imprisonment of witchcraft by dissolving the Court of Oyer and Terminer, which was a court set up to deal with social disorder cases. The trials then ended at that point.



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Team Norms

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II. How Norms Develop

a. They can be set over time

1. Example � students will sit in the same seat each time in class; group members will sit in the same seat during a group meeting;

b. Carryovers from other situations

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1. Example � Professional standards of conduct, you usually act a certain way in the work place or a certain way in class

c. Explicit statements from others

1. Example � Your boss tells you how we do it around here. There can also be specific lists that tell you how you are supposed to act.

d. Critical events in group history

1. Example � Once a person suffered a loss because one person divulged company secrets so a norm develops to maintain secrecy

. Example � At work, one person got in trouble for being late so now it is a norm to always be at work on time

III. Common High Performance Team Norms

a. No put-downs directed toward other members � encourage other team members

b. Celebrate Success - teams will recognize small successful steps or milestones

1. This will lead to higher team commitment and confidence

c. Rotate Leadership Responsibilities

1. Different members have different skills and abilities and this should be taken advantage of

. Needs to be equal decision making power

d. Have Fun

1. Can build energy in a group and give the members a mental break

e. Frequent Quality Reviews

1. Informal milestone checks to keep the group on task � can just ask “So what have we learned?” during the meeting

IV. The Definition of Group Cohesion

a. “the degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members.”

b. This is an important determinant to a team’s success



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Ratailing

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I. Introduction/Overview

Retailing is selling products and services to consumers for personal use. It is the second largest industry in the United States both in number of establishments and number of employees. Retail is one of the fastest growing, most dynamic parts of the world economy. Careers in retail are fast-paced, people oriented, and exciting. (Encyclopedia 4) This field is worth taking a good look at, particularly if you like these sorts of things. There are several options, many including store management, buying, merchandising and central management. This paper will focus mainly on the management position.

In the United States, small, family-owned stores have been around for centuries. The first large chain store began to operate in the late 1th century. One of the aims of early chain stores was to provide staples for the pioneers of the newly settled West. Because chain store corporations were able to buy goods in large quantities and store them in warehouses, they were able to undersell private merchants. (Outline of the U.S. Economy )

The number of retail stores, especially supermarkets, began to grow during the 10s. Cheaper transportation also contributed to the growth of retail stores because goods could be shipped and sold more economically. Unlike the early family-owned stores, giant retail outlets employed large numbers of people, requiring various levels of management to oversee the business. Retail managers were hired to oversee particular

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areas within department stores. Higher-level managers were also needed to make more general decisions about a company’s goals and policies. (Outline of the U.S. Economy -) A management position is retail seems to be a powerful job.

II. Duties/Responsibilities/Activities/Requirements/Skills

Retail managers are responsible for every phase of a store’s operation. They often are one of the first employees to arrive in the morning and the last ones to leave at night. Their duties include hiring, training, and supervising other employees, maintaining the physical facilities, managing inventory, monitoring expenditures and receipts, and maintaining good public relations. (Career Discovery 71)

It seems that the most important responsibility is hiring and training qualified employees. Managers will eventually then assign duties to employees, monitor their progress, promote employees, and increase salaries when appropriate. When an employee is not performing satisfactory, a manager must find a way to improve the performance or, if necessary, fire him or her. Basically they decide who is best to work in their store.

Managers should be good at working with people. Differences of opinion and personality clashes among employees are inevitable, and the manager must be able to restore good feelings among the staff. Not being able to get along with your manager will make working conditions unbearable; I know from experience. Managers often have to deal with customer’s grievances and must attempt to restore a positive attitude toward the store when customers are dissatisfied. Needless to say, patience must be a strong

virtue. Retail managers keep accurate and up-to-date records of store inventory. When new merchandise arrives, the manager ensures items are recorded, priced, and displayed or shelved. The must know when stock is getting low and order new items in a timely

manner. Communication skills must be strong in order to keep the store running well. Diplomacy often is necessary when creating schedules for workers and in disciplinary matters. (Career Discovery 74) Managers carry a lot of weight on their backs. Without good management skills, a store is sure to fall apart.

Store managers are also responsible for advertising and merchandise promotions. The manager may confer with an advertising agency representative to determine appropriate advertising for the store. The manager also may decide what products to put in sale for advertising purposes.

The duties of store managers vary according to the type of merchandise being sold, size of store, and number or employees. In small, owner operated stores, managers often are involved in accounting, data processing, marketing, research, sales, and shipping. In large retail corporations, managers may be involved in only one or two of those activities. (Occupational 505)

As far as requirements go, a minimum high school education generally is required for this position. Most retail stores prefer applicants with a college degree. Liberal arts, social sciences, and business are the most common degrees held by retail managers. To prepare for a career as a retail store manager, courses in accounting, business, marketing, English, advertising, and computer science would be helpful to take. (Occupational 507)

Many large retail stores and national chains have established formal training programs for their new employees. The training period may last for a week or as long as one year. Training for a department store manager may

include working as a salesperson in several departments in order to learn about the stores operations. (Occupational 507-508)

III. Advantages/Disadvantages

As mentioned before, a retail manager may put in very long hours. This can definitely be looked at as a disadvantage. Some managers often work six days a week and as many as 60 hours a week. Busier times of the year, such as the Christmas season, managers will usually put in more hours. Because holiday seasons are peak shopping periods, it is extremely rare that managers can take holidays off or schedule vacations around a holiday, even if the store is not open on that day.

Although managers usually can get away from the store during not-so-busy times, they must often be available if the store is open at night. This is so they can handle the store’s daily receipts and figures.

An advantage for a retail manager is opportunities in advancement. More responsibilities, in turn, leads to more money. Advancement varies according to the size of the store, location of the store, and merchandise being sold. Advancement also depends on the individual’s work experience and educational background.

A store manager who works for a large retail chain may be given responsibility for a number of stores in a given area or region or transferred to a larger store in another city. Willingness to relocate to a new city may increase an employee’s promotional

opportunities. Some managers decide to open their own stores after they have acquired enough experience in the retail industry. (Retail Industry Profile 1)

For those who only have a high school degree, it is still possible to advance in this career. This could definitely be look at as an advantage. Many store managers are promoted to their positions from jobs of less responsibility within the organization. Most jobs now-a-days you need a college education for.

IV. a href=http//go-advertising.com?go=employment onmouseover=window.status = goto employment;return 1 onmouseout=window.status=Employment/a Forecast/Prediction

The retail industry created more new jobs than any other sector industry last year. According to the National Retail Federation’s Retail Industry Indicators, retail added . million new jobs between 188 and 18. Projections are for million new retail jobs by 008 for a grand total of 5.4 million jobs throughout the industry. Currently, retail encompasses more that 1.4 million U.S. establishments. One in five American workers is employed in retail. (Careers in Marketing )

Although lately retailers have reduced their management staff to cut costs and make operations more efficient, there are still good opportunities in retailing. However, competition for jobs probably will continue to increase, and computerized systems for inventory control may reduce the need for some managers. Applicants with the best educational background and work experience will have the best chances for finding jobs.

V. Compensation/Benefits/Perks/Mobility

There is a significant premium paid for people with skill and desire to work hard in retail. As of 1/000 a store manager, depending on the size of the store, responsibilities, and number of customer served, earns about $5,000 to $170,000. A

District manager will make anywhere from $40,000 to 180,000 + a bonus. A Regional manager will earn around $70,000 to 00,000 + a bonus. (Careers in Marketing 1)

In addition to the money, some stores offer their managers special bonuses, or commissions, which are typically connected to the store’s performance. This is why it is so important for a manager to “stay on top of things”. The achievements of the store reflect on the organization and productivity of the manager. Many stores also offer employee discounts on store merchandise.

VI. Impact of Chosen Career � U.S. Economy

Today, the American economy boasts a wide array of enterprises, ranging from one-person sole proprietorships to some of the worlds largest corporations. In 15, there were 16.4 million non-farm, sole proprietorships, 1.6 million partnerships, and 4.5 million corporations in the United States -- a total of .5 million independent enterprises. (Outline of the U.S. Economy 1)

Small businesses are a continuing source of drive for the American economy. They produced three-fourths of the economys new jobs between 10 and 15, an even larger contribution to a href=http//0-u.com?go=employment onmouseover=window.status = goto employment;return 1 onmouseout=window.status=employment/a growth than they made in the 180s. They also represent an entry point into the economy for new groups. (Bryant 166)

Although there are many small and medium-sized companies, big business units play a dominant role in the American economy. There are several reasons for this. Large companies can supply goods and services to a greater number of people, and they frequently operate more efficiently than small ones. In addition, they often can sell their products at lower prices because of the large volume and small costs per unit sold. They

have an advantage in the marketplace because many consumers are attracted to well-known brand names, which they believe guarantee a certain level of quality. (Bryant 166-167)

Large businesses are important to the overall economy because they tend to have more financial resources than small firms to conduct research and develop new goods. They generally offer more varied job opportunities and greater job stability, higher wages, and better health and retirement benefits. (Bryant 168)

In the U.S., Wal-Mart is the world’s largest retailer and the world’s largest company with approximately $45 billion in sales annually. The store alone, also employs more that 1 million associates in the U.S. and more that 00,000 internationally. Without retail stores in the world, life would not be the same. (Retail Industry Profile )

V11. Impact of Chosen Career � Business/Marketing

When a retailing store wants to be successful, the must keep in mind the 4 P’s, product, price, place, and promotion. The 4 P’s are your marketing mix. They are your independent variables. The dependent variable is sales volume. This is where you must start and get organized in order to be successful.

For example, as for retailing, you must first decide what will be sold in the store. After that, a price must be set. As a product moves through the distribution channels, from manufacturer to distributor to dealer to customer, there are prices set along the way. The manufacturers selling price to the distributor becomes the distributors cost. Is that cost in line with competing products which the distributor might carry instead? Is the

cost low enough so that dealers will have enough margins in order to want to carry the product? Obviously, it is important to understand pricing and margins along the

distribution path (Outline of the U.S. Economy ). Ultimately, the price to the consumer or last purchaser in the chain must be such that it is competitive.

Where you decide to place the store is something that is also very important. You can then decide how you want to position yourself with respect to your competitors while at the same time keeping in mind your corporate objectives.

Last, promoting the store and products can be crucial. Promotion is that term which many people confuse with marketing. For many, the words promoter and marketer are synonymous. But, promotion is just one of the four Ps and a good marketer is not just a good promoter but also a good planner and a good listener. (Outline of the U.S. Economy 4)

Promotion can take many forms advertising in various media, events, press releases, trade shows, brochures, flyers, and internet sites to name a few. Promotion means to create awareness although awareness is just the beginning. (Retail Industry Profile 4) Good promotion compels the buyer to buy. The need for the product must be addressed.

Promotion is unlimited. There is virtually no limit on the amount of TV, radio, and newspaper advertising that one can do. For example, if you have the money, one of the smartest things you can do, if you are advertising for the retail industry, is putting in a commercial in the American Super Bowl broadcast. You could not ask for a bigger audience than that. Then it is followed up with an overwhelming amount of print

advertising as well as focused trade publications and trade shows. This is the goal of promoters.

VIII. Global Implications

The top 5 retailers control about 60% of the retail sales volume in the world and account for about 0% of spending on consumer marketing. Thats going to grow geometrically. If you look at the top 5 retailers, 16 or 17 of the top 5 are either U.S. headquartered or concentrate significant decision-making in the United States. That means that the U.S., led by Wal-Mart, is going to have a significant influence on global retail. (Outline of the U.S. Economy 5)

Now every one of these same nations has a colonial empire -- only its retailing instead of a military-industrial complex. Japan is a global exporter of retailing. France is the biggest global exporter of retailing in Europe, followed closely by the Germans, and then the English. Australia exports global retailing. The U.S. has its own colonial empire, again, led by Wal-Mart. (Outline of the U.S. Economy 5-6)

Rather than building new stores, they want to acquire chains in other countries because thats the fastest way to grow and export their global retailing. One of the things driving globalization is that in each country, particularly France and Germany, legislation has been passed that says you cant build new stores, or you cant build big-box stores. Everybody now is racing to acquire other chains in their own countries and then acquire chains that have operations internationally. (Outline of the U.S. Economy 7)

Its Wal-mart, versus the major players in Germany to see who is going to control retailing in Germany. In France its whos going to get bought next because major players in France are all exporting retailing really aggressively. In England a lot of the chains are going international. J. Sainsbury and Marks & Spencer are both looking overseas for growth. In Japan, the globalization trend is even more pronounced than in the U.K. Theres no available land, so they are all going overseas to grow. (Outline of the U.S. Economy 7-8)

IX. Future (S/R & L/R)

Several trends will affect the future of retailing. They include the slowdown in population and economic growth; greater competition and new types of retailers making it harder to improve market shares in existing markets; consumer demographics, lifestyles, and shopping patterns that are changing rapidly; quickly rising costs making more efficient operation and smarter buying essential to successful retailing; and retail technologies growing in importance as competitive tools to produce better forecasts, control inventory costs, order electronically from suppliers, communicate between stores, and sell to consumers within stores. (Careers in Marketing )

Many retailing innovations are partially explained by the wheel of retailing concept. According to this concept, new types of retailing forms challenge established retailers that have become “fat” by letting their costs and margins increase. The new retailers’ success leads them to upgrade their facilities and offer more services, increasing their costs and forcing them to raise prices. Eventually, the new retailers become like the

conventional ones they replaced, and the cycle begins again when still newer types of retail forms evolve with lower costs and prices. (Careers in Marketing -4)

The Wheel of Retailing concept seems to explain the initial success and later troubles of department stores, supermarkets, and discount stores and the recent success of

off-price retailers. To be successful, retailers of the future will have to keep on adapting to the changes in life and go from there.



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Probably composed in late 1606 or early 1607, Macbeth is the last of Shakespeare's four great tragedies.

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hiThe Influence of the witches and Lady Macbeth on Macbeth The combination of the influence of the witches and the influence of Lady Macbeth on Macbeth are what precipitate the tragedy. The witches’ initial prophecies, where they address Macbeth with titles he doesn’t have, influence Macbeth. The apparitions ...

Macbeth Attitude Changes

Macbeth Attitude Changes WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES Macbeth was first performed in 1606, three years after James I succeeded Elizabeth I on the English throne. By that time, William Shakespeare was the most popular playwright in England, and his company, which had been called the ...

The Relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth

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Lady Macbeth vs. Macbeth Macbeth Essay William Shakespeares Macbeth, is a Medieval story about a Nobleman who had evil ambitions of becoming the King of Scotland. Throughout the story, Macbeth carries out three evil deeds, the murder of King Duncan, the murder of Banquo and, the murder of Macduff ...

Macbeth - Lady Macbeth

Macbeth - Lady Macbeth Macbeth � Scene Analysis “Glamis thou art, and Cawdor, and shalt be What thou art promised; yet do I fear thy nature, It is too full o’th’milk of human kindness To catch the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great, Art not without ambition, but without The illness should attend it ...

Lady Macbeth is more ruthless than Macbeth

Lady Macbeth is more ruthless than Macbeth MACBETH ESSAY In life everyone has goals that they hope to attain and there are many ways that one can achieve these goals. To achieve what you desire you can either wait for time to take its toll, or take matters into your own hands and do what you have to ...

The Downfall of Macbeth in Macbeth

The Downfall of Macbeth in Macbeth People and ideas can greatly affect the outcome of a person’s life, determining whether the outcome will be successful or disastrous. Decisions and actions can also influence outcome. This is the case in Macbeth. Many factors cause the ruin of Macbeth and for that ...

Macbeth - Lady Macbeths influence on the audience and themes

Macbeth - Lady Macbeths influence on the audience and themes In the play Macbeth, I think Shakespear, the author, uses characters in the structure of the play to a large effect. In Act1, I think Banquo was used by Shakespear as a contrast to Macbeth; they are close friends, and have simila

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new business

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The U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy (hereafter referred to as

SBA Office of Advocacy) contracted with Management Research and Planning Corp.

(MRP) to study what state and local governments were doing to mitigate burdensome

regulations on small business entities. The analysis of this study looked at how state

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efforts compared to federal protection under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA), the

Small Business Regulatory Enforcement and Fairness Act (SBREFA) and Executive

Order 1866. It also studied what unique methods states were using to protect small

businesses from burdensome regulations. As little was known prior to this effort as to

what states were doing to protect small businesses from burdensome regulatory actions,

this study was contracted with the goal of identifying best practices in reducing small

business regulatory burdens and sharing those best practices with all state and local

governments.

The research discovered that few states are actively implementing protections for small

businesses against burdensome regulations, with fewer still implementing meaningful

programs that are genuinely benefiting the small business community. Implementing a

program that provides true protection to small businesses requires well- written legislation

and executive orders, as well as the political support of the state government, particularly

the governors office, to ensure these written protections are enforced. As the body of

this report demonstrates, laws and executive orders that do not garner the support of the

governors office typically fail in providing the regulatory protection to small businesses.

While there are several elements of government support that can make or break the prosmall

business environment, ensuring regulatory agencies do not encumber small

businesses with burdensome regulations is an integral part of this task.

Beyond the element of gubernatorial support, the states that actively sought to mitigate

regulatory burdens demonstrated that there are various ways to accomplish this mission.

While some states followed some element of the federal model, others incorporated

unique elements that proved effective in reducing regulatory burden. These elements

typically involved independent bodies that reviewed agency regulations to ensure they

measured the economic impact of the regulation and that this impact would not unduly

burden small businesses. Even one state, Arizona, provided their independent review

board the authority to block regulations that were determined to be burdensome,

providing a unique and powerful program to protect small businesses. This regulatory

protection system is likely one of the main reasons why Arizona and Phoenix have been

rated so highly as a great place to start a small business by Inc. magazine.

This report clearly identifies the level of success state governments are achieving in

reducing regulatory burdens on small businesses. The vast majority of states are falling

short in even attempting to protect small businesses from regulatory burden. Some states

are trying but are falling short of adequately protecting small business interests

(according to small business advocates like the National Federation of Independent

Businesses (NFIB)). A few states however are providing shining examples of how

governments that support the small business community can achieve success in

mitigating burdensome regulations. These states processes and other information and

analysis collected in this report provide a substantive overview of where state

governments currently stand in averting regulatory burden and identify best practices that

can be applied to improve the regulatory climate for small businesses.

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Tuesday, October 2, 2012

business

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Outsourcing is the contracting out of a company’s in-house function to a preferred vendor with a high quality level in the particular task area. Outsourcing is one of the fastest growing trends in business. Large- scale organisations such as Telstra (especially for their Internet and Pay-TV divisions) have latched onto outsourcing due to the almost immediate opportunity of savings and quality improvement. Outsourcing can impact many elements of an organisation in a positive or negative manner. Areas such as structure, corporate culture, cost centres and labour have the most tendency to react to outsourcing developments.

Employees of organizations don’t benefit from outsourcing as they are at a risk with becoming redundant. This occurs as another group outside the organization who have similar skills and competencies that can perform the same tasks replace existing workers. This treatment of employees can trigger a collapse in confidence and morale from all other employees throughout an organization as they view fellow employees leaving due to job replacements. Therefore in the future lasting employees will feel uncomfortable in an organization that is constantly outsourcing with fears of loosing their job. In order to prevent this morale downgrade management may choose to cross - train redundant employees so they can fit in another suitable position, where it may for expansion or increase labour productivity.

Another aspect that may be impacted by outsourcing is the hierarchical structure. If a certain department is run from outside such as Human Resources, i.e. recruitment is controlled by an outside body, this makes the ‘HRM’ division to be removed from the organization and hence its formal structure. Advantages of clearing a structure can give senior management the prospect of re-using and expanding into locations that have been previously outsourced. The departmentalisation of the structure might have to be altered to correspond with the changes caused from outsourcing.

The reason why an organisation can reduce costs when going ahead with outsourcing is because it can call upon the outside body to perform a task on a ‘need basis’. This means an organization can call upon a contracted when the need be. Re-visiting the HRM division being outsourced, this division is working away all the time with unnecessary wages being paid. An organization does not need people in charge of obtaining recruitments all the time so by outsourcing recruitment, money can be saved. Another consideration is the redundancy of workers, if employees are dismissed, here wages can be saved. If the organization locates a contractor that is cheaper than redundant workers then the net money situation is favourable for the organization. Often contractors and specialised in their particular task, so the factor of improved quality and reliability are driving forces when considering outsourcing.

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Outsourcing does not eliminate decision-making and the need for managers to control. Rather, managers must continuously monitor and evaluate the outsourced functions to ensure that partners are as a whole beneficial to the organisation.



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