Monday, July 30, 2012

Strategic management of health care organization: Exhibits of a health care organization (ficticious)

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THE IROC MEDICAL CENTER

00-00 STANDARDS FOR AMBULATORY

MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT OF CARE

The IROC Medical Center provides an effective environment of care as described by the 00-00 ambulatory standards. The goal of this Medical Center is to provide a safe, functional, supportive, and effective environment for patients, staff members, and other individuals in the organization. The standards in the IROC Medical Center focus on how everyone in the organization participates in the processes and activities that make the care environment safe and effective. The standards also address department leaders’ responsibility for identifying and communicating the care environment needs to the organization and allocating appropriate space, equipment and resources to safely and effectively support the organization’s services.

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STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

PLANNING EC. 1

The organization plans for a safe, accessible, effective, and efficient environment consistent with its mission, services, laws, and regulation.



EC. 1.4 The organization has an emergency management plan. [See exhibit 1]

IMPLEMENTATION EC.

The organization provides a safe, accessible, effective, and efficient environment consistent with its mission, services, law, and regulation.

EC. .1 The organization implements its safety plan [See exhibit ].

EC. .10. Medical equipment is maintained, tested, and inspected. [See exhibit 4]

OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS EC.

The organization plans and provides for other environmental concerns.

EC. .1. The organization provides an environment with appropriate space and equipment. [See exhibit 5]

MEASURING OUTCOMES OF IMPLEMENTATION EC. 4

The organization evaluates and improves conditions in the environment.

EC. 4.1 The organization collects information about deficiencies and opportunities for improvement in the environment. [See exhibit ]



EXHIBIT 1

IROC MEDICAL CENTER

THE ORGANIZATION HAS AN EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN

THE EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLAN EC.1.4

IROC Medical Center shall maintain a comprehensive Emergency Plan. Emergency management guidelines shall be developed and made widely available to all medical center staff. The plan will address the major components of required for a successful emergency plan. The plan will include the essential components of risk mitigation, emergency preparedness, emergency response, recovery and also education.

DESCRIPTION

The Emergency Preparedness Plan sets procedural guidelines for all personnel in the event of a mass casualty or facility disaster situation at IROC. This plan has been developed in conjunction with key departments and coordinates with other state and community agencies.

The plan is based on several principles fundamental to Emergency Planning

• Risk Mitigation- means all efforts have been made to reduce the consequences should a disaster of any type occur.

• Emergency Preparedness- addresses that all the components are in place so that personnel and systems can react properly and positively to all potential sources of a disaster and that a control structure is in place to manage the emergency.

• Emergency Response- addresses that a properly managed response plan has been developed and is understood by all staff responsible for responding to a facility mobilization. The response systems are activated and utilized correctly to safely manage a disaster and to reduce confusion and stress to staff and services.

• Recovery- describes a system in place to ensure all system can return to normal operation. A significant component of recovery is financial. Systems are in place to document all consequences, financial, and physical.

PRIMARY GOALS

A. Preparedness to respond to variety of disasters and emergency situations including but

not limited to

• Assaultive Behavior

• Bio-terrorism or weapons of mass destruction attack

• Bomb threat

• Civil Disturbance

• Evacuation

• Fire

• Hazardous materials spill

• Security situations

• Utility Failure

This and other departmental manuals contain plans and processes for responding to above and other

emergency situations.

B. Coordinate prompt transfer of casualties to the most appropriate facility for administering effective care after preliminary medical or surgical services have been provided and initiate procedure for prompt discharge or transfer of patients from IROC to Community General who can be moved without jeopardizing their health or recovery.

C. Provide Security Services to manage personnel access to emergency response areas and provide information to the public on the emergency, patient status, and related matters.

D. Convert usable space in defined areas for efficient patient care services and maintain availability of adequate basic utilities and supplies including water, gases, food, and essential medical and supportive materials.

E. Protect and maintain physical plant facilities and provide social services, including religious and psychological support, to staff, patients, and visitors.

Reasons to activate the Emergency Plan are as follows

• Mass casualty incident

• Loss of utilities or facilities due to damage or equipment failure

• Structural damage to medical center buildings that affect patient care activities

• Major hazardous material spills

• Civil disturbance

• Any other event that could negatively impact hospital functions.

EMERGENCY PREPARDNESS PLAN SEQUENCE

1. The Administrator-on-Call (AOC), Senior Administrator or Nursing Supervisor can activate the Facilities Mobilization Plan once they have recognize that a emergency situation is occurring or is imminent.

. To activate the plan, one of the above authorities will call the hospital operator (78-084) and instruct the operator to announce that the Facilities Mobilization is now in effect. The operators will then initiate the proper overhead notification, pager notification and telephone calls as stated in the established procedures.

. Departments are to implement their department-specific procedures when the announcement or other communication is made.

4. During the emergency, the Medical Center departments are to continue standard operating procedures as much as possible. Non-essential staff should report to the Personnel Pool.

5. Plan deactivation should include agreement between the Incident Commander, Emergency Department, and/or Security Services or facilities ensuring the emergency is under control, and special operating procedures are no longer needed. A limited response may still be required to return operating conditions.

6. Each Department will have a department specific plan outlining key emergency response plans for their immediate area and their role, if any, in a facilities mobilization.

AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES

The Emergency Preparedness Subcommittee has overall responsibility for management of the Emergency Preparedness Plan, and is under the direction of the IROC Medical Center Environment of Care Committee (ECC) in congruence with the 00-00 Standards for Ambulatory Care. All policies and procedures are approved according to the guidelines. The emergency preparedness subcommittee reports quarterly to the Environment of Care Committee. Managers are responsible for developing department-specific emergency plans.

ANNUAL EFFECTIVENSS EVALUATION

The Emergency Preparedness Plan will be evaluated annually on objectives, scope, performance and effectiveness by the Emergency Preparedness Subcommittee.

POLICY REVIEW AND UPDATES

This policy supercedes any policies before it. It shall be reviewed at least every three

years and whenever it is requested by the ECC.

APPROVAL

_____________________________________________________________

Safety Officer Date

_____________________________________________________________

Associate Director Date

_____________________________________________________________

Executive Director Date

REVIEWED

_____________________________________________________________

Signature Date

_____________________________________________________________

Signature Date



EXHIBIT

IROC MEDICAL CENTER

THE ORGANIZATION IMPLEMENTS A SAFTEY PLAN EC. .1

IMPLEMENTATION

The organization provides a safe, accessible, effective, and efficient environment consistent with its mission, services, law, and regulation.

POLICY

The IROC Medical Center shall take actions to maintain a safe and healthy environment through the implementation of an Environment of Care Program. The Environment of Care shall assess the potential risks of injury to patients, staff, and visitors and the risk of loss or damage to facilities or equipment assets and shall implement programs to minimize such risks. The Environment of Care Program shall comply with local, state, and federal laws and meet the requirements of the relevant accrediting agencies.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Safety Program incorporates the activities of the seven Environment of Care Programs Safety, Hazardous Material, Fire/Life Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Medical Equipment and Buildings and utilities as well as activities of infection control, Risk Management, Employee Health Services and other health and safety programs. The Safety Officer has overall responsibility for implementation of the Environment of Care Program and the Environment of Care Committee establishes the appropriate subcommittees representing functional areas. The Safety Program complies with the 00-00 JCAHO standards.

PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

A. Environment of Care Committee (ECC)



The ECC is responsible for the creation, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and

improvement of the Safety Program. The committee is composed of representatives

from administrative, clinical and support services and meets at least ten times per

year.

Subcommittees that represent the ECC monitor safety activities, solve problems, set

Performance standards recommend policy and program changes and are the driving

Force behind the safety programs. Task forces are established to address specific,

targeted issues.

The ECC continuously identifies hazards and risks through the implementation of

Data Gathering and Analysis System (DGAS). The DGAS is discussed in further

detail in exhibit . The DGAS gathers the following types of data

1. Performance data- sources of performance data include but are not limited to

a. Facility Rounds

b. Staff interviews

c. Fire drills

d. Safety minutes

e. Security Rounds

. Critical incidents- Sources of critical incidents include but are not limited to

a. Assaults of staff

b. Air quality complaints

c. Employee Injuries and Illness

d. Fires

e. Failure to follow emergency procedures

f. Hazardous Material Spills

g. Theft

Once hazards have been identified and information collected the ECC will determine the appropriate actions to be taken depending on the risk assessment. The implementation outcome measurements for this standard are discussed in detail in Exhibit



EXHIBIT

IROC MEDICAL CENTER

THE ORGANIZATION COLLECTS INFORMATION ABOUT DEFIECIENCES AND OPPORTUNIES FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT EC. 4.1

MEASURING OUTCOMES OF IMPLEMENTATION

POLICY

Each Department of the IROC Medical Center shall have an Environmental of Care Plan which addresses specific issues related to safety, security, hazardous materials, emergency preparedness, fire/life safety, medical equipment and utilities. Staff shall be trained about the hazards and risks specific to working in their departments and shall be trained to appropriately collect information about deficiencies, minimize risks, and handle emergency situations for the improvement of the environment.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Environment of Care Committee serves as a resource to all departments to assist with the developing of their plan. The ECC continuously identifies hazards and risks through the implementation of the Data Gathering and Analysis System (DGAS). The DGAS gathers the following types of data, which include but is not limited to

1. Performance data- sources of performance data include but are not limited to

a. Facility Rounds

b. Staff interviews

c. Fire drills

d. Safety minutes

e. Security Rounds

. Critical incidents- Sources of critical incidents include but are not limited to

a. Assaults of staff

b. Air quality complaints

c. Employee Injuries and Illness

d. Fires

e. Failure to follow emergency procedures

f. Hazardous Material Spills

g. Theft

To assist departments developing their plan, a series of question has been outlined in this section and are intended to guide departments through the major considerations that should be made for each functional area.

The questions and checklist in this section must be completed and signed/dated by the Department Manager.

The ECC will then review the department plan and make recommendations, if deemed necessary.

IROC MEDICAL CENTER DEPARTMENTAL CHECKLIST

________________________________________________________________________

A. SAFTEY MANAGEMENT (check off all potential hazards in your area)

__Tripping hazards

__Sharp objects

__Potential exposures to bodily fluids

__Burns for hot materials

__Back injuries from lifting

__Hazardous chemicals utilized in the area

__Other





Check safety precautions your department has implemented to reduce or eliminate the identified hazards



__Staff training and tours with new staff showing tripping or falling hazards in

area

__Staff has been trained on all available safety devices and have been instructed

on how to use them safely.

__Staff has been shown how to handle hazardous spills and been provided with

personal protection equipment.

__Staff has been instructed on how to avoid back injuries

Staff knows the following safety information for the department



__Location of the ECC manual

__Numbers to call for safety needs

__Safety Coordinator for the Department



A. FIRE/LINE SAFETY MANAGEMENT- All staff working in this department must

know the following.

__ The location of sprinkler heads

__ The location of the nearest fire alarm pull boxes

__ The location and use of fire extinguishers

__ The evacuation maps

B. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT RESPONSE

__ An understanding of facility mobilization

__ Location of nearest emergency supplies

C. MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT

__ Location of red outlets and equipment that is connected to emergency power

__ Number to call for broken equipment

__ Safety check label on all medical equipment

__ Departmental policy and procedure for using new medical equipment

D. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, WASTE HANDLING AND DEPARTMENT

HAZARDS

__ Number to call for Hazardous spill

__ Location of Department spill kit

__ List of hazardous chemicals used in the department

__ Procedure for spill cleanup

__ Other

F. SECURITY

__ Personal items are secured in a locked area

__ Department equipment has been secured with a lock system

__ All visitors must check in at receptionist desk and present valid ID

__ Other

G. EDUCATION AND TRAINING

__ Staff meetings (documentation and attendance lists available)

__ Documented staff-in service has been conducted

__ The Department receives employee injury reports to track and correct hazards.

__ Manager observes that employees use proper lifting technique when lifting

patients

__ Use of personal protective equipment.



REMINDER Please send a copy of this checklist to John Doe at the IROC Medical Center Safety Office Health City USA.



EXHIBIT 4

IROC MEDICAL CENTER

MEDICAL EQUIPMENT IS MAINTAINED, TESTED, AND INSPECTED

EC. .10.

POLICY

The purpose of the IROC Medical Equipment Plan is to provide safe, clinically appropriate and cost-effective medical equipment for patient care and to assure that users of medical equipment are properly trained. It is the intent of this program to comply with any applicable state, federal and local laws and the requirements of accrediting agencies.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Medical Equipment Plan is a core component of the IROC Medical Center’s Environment of Care Plan. The Medical Equipment Plan is required by the 00 JAHO Standards and the Health City Administrative Code.

The Department Manager performs management of the medical equipment inventory database, establishes criteria for inclusion/exclusion of equipment in the inventory. Management provides for evaluation and testing of medical equipment prior to initial use. Management also oversees safety and preventive maintenance of equipment included in the Medical Equipment Plan. The plan assists managers and Supervisors help in the development and provision of medical equipment continued education. The plan assists in developing an implementing effective planning of emergency procedures for medical equipment failures.

INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT

A. The purpose of the inspection, testing and preventive maintenance program is to minimize the clinical and physical risk associated with medical equipment.

1. Initial inspection- a safety inspection shall be performed on every piece

of equipment received by the medical equipment department.

a. The equipment will be tested to confirm operation and compliance with

the appropriate standards.

b. If the equipment fails, it will be returned to the manufacturer.

. Scheduled Preventive Maintenance

a. Once a month, this Department will generate a report for all equipment due

for inspection.

b. Clinical Engineering will perform the inspections (pass/no pass) according to

manufacture’s recommendations.

c. The prior inspection sticker will be removed and replaced with a

new one.

d. An equipment history record will be initiated for the preventive maintenance

performed.

f. All staff or employee owned medical equipment must be checked by Clinical

Engineering prior to use. Clinical Engineering shall place a safety sticker to

indicate that it passed the criteria for use of Clinical use.



B. EDUCATION AND TRAINING

a. Emergency procedures addressing equipment failure are taught by in-house

vendor supplied training. Education is provided, as needed, to optimize staff

competencies.

b. Technicians are given necessary information to perform maintenance

responsibilities through manufacturers service manuals and training

information.

c. The Educational and Training Subcommittee of the ECC is responsible for

assuring that the content of new employee orientation and annual safety training is

appropriate and that it includes education about medical equipment.

C. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT

a. The ECC is committed to continuous performance improvement as a central

goal. Annual performance standards are established for each Program which

actual performance is measured.

ANNUAL EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

The Medical Equipment Program will be evaluated annually on goals, scope, and

effectiveness by the Medical Equipment Subcommittee and will be reported to the

ECC.



APPROVALS

Original Tina Marie, Technician, September 00

Donna Grant, Medical Center Facilities September 00

Reviewed Missy Williams, Associate Director October 00

Approved Medical Equipment Subcommittee November 00

EXHIBIT 5

IROC MEDICAL CENTER

THE ORGANIZATION PLANS AND PROVIDES FOR OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS.



THE ORGANIZATION PROVIDES AN ENVIRONMENT WITH APPROPRIATE SPACE AND EQUIPMENT. EC..1.

POLICY

The IROC Medical Center will provide a safe, functional, supportive, and effective environment for patients, staff members, and other individuals in the Medical Center. This is crucial to providing quality patient care, achieving good outcomes, and improving patient safety. It is the intent of this program to comply with any applicable state, federal and local laws and the requirements of accrediting agencies.

MISSION

The IROC Medical Center goal is to improve the quality of patient care and patient safety. Performing strategic and on-going master planning by hospital leaders for the space, clear circulation of occupants, equipment, support environment, and resources needed to safely and effectively support the services provided. Planning and designing of the environment is consistent with the hospital’s mission and vision, and the patient’s physical condition/health, cultural background, age and cognitive abilities.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The program creates a safe, welcoming, and comfortable environment that support and maintain patient dignity and personhood, allow ease of interaction, reduce stressors, and encourage family participation in the delivery of care. Effective management if the environment of care includes using processes and activities to do the following

• Reduce and control environmental hazards and risks

• Prevent accidents and injuries

• Maintain a clean, functional, well lit environment

• Space size and configuration that are appropriate and consistent with the clinical philosophy

• Maintain an environment that is sensitive to patient needs for comfort, social interaction and positive distraction.

• Orientation and access to nature and the outside

• Clarity of access (both exterior and interior circulation)

RATIONALE

The Environment of Care Committee (ECC) measures staff and hospital performance in managing and improving the environment of care. It is important that the physical environment is functional and promotes healing and caring. Certain key physical elements in the environment can be significant in their ability to positively influence patient outcomes and satisfaction and improve patient safety. These elements can also contribute in creating the way the space feels and works for patients, families, visitors, and staff experiencing the care, treatment, or service delivery system.

IMPLEMENTATION

1. ECC ensures that interior spaces are appropriate to the care, treatment, and services provided and the needs of the patients related to age and other characteristics.

. Include closet and drawer space provided for storing personal property and other items provided for use by patients. Lockers, drawers, or closet space is provided for patients who are in charge of their own personal grooming and who wear street clothes.

. furnishing and equipment are properly maintained and in good repair

4. Patient living, dining, and recreation areas are safe, clean, functional, and comfortable.

5. Lighting is suitable for care, treatment, or services and specific activities being conducted.

6. Door locks and other structural restraints used are consistent with the needs of patients, program policy, law, and regulation. Emergency access provision is provided to all locked occupied spaces. Each medicine preparation room door shall be equipped with a device which causes an unattended door to close, latch and lock without manual assistance.

RESPONSIBILITY

It is the responsibility of the ECC subcommittee to ensure that a review is performed, a resolution log is generated, and that follow-up actions are taken to correct deficiencies.

EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

The Patient Environment Improvement Program (PEIP) will be evaluated semiannually on objectives, scope, performance and effectiveness by the ECC Subcommittee of the ECC.

APPROVALS

Original Larry Johnson, Security September 00

Donna Grant, Medical Center Facilities September 00

Reviewed John Cromwell, Director of Nursing October 00

Approved Environment of Care Committee November 00



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Friday, July 27, 2012

advantage disadvantage energy geothermal

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If, despite all this good advice and your hard work, you are not asked back for a second interview or offered the job, you need to know if there is a problem you could solve. If you are getting interviews there is obviously little wrong with your application but failure at the interview stage can throw you into a flurry of self-doubt at a time when you need it least.



It is quite acceptable to ask the interviewers for feedback (their view of your performance and how you came across). Write to, or preferably telephone, the organisation as soon as possible after you hear the result and ask for interview feedback. Sensible though this is, it may not always be possible to get constructive feedback. If the interviewer cannot or will not help, you can always do some careful post-interview analysis and perhaps talk to a careers adviser about how the interview went.



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¡®I expected to be disadvantaged as a 7 year old new graduate, so I took job hunting seriously. I read books about job hunting, and how to write a winning CV and I practised wearing suitable interview outfits well in advance - having spent years going to work wearing dungarees I needed to practise! I spent a long time identifying skills and experience from my assortment of previous jobs that I could claim to be relevant or transferable. As it turned out, my age didn¡¯t seem to be a disadvantage at all. I think what was an advantage for me was that I¡¯d thought hard about what I wanted and what I could offer to an employer, so I could be fairly decisive and confident. Also, I found that I and other mature students had acquired a great deal of understanding of how things get done in real life - compromises, dealing with people, imperfect solutions better than no solution etc, which the year olds just don¡¯t have. I¡¯m sure this shows up as an advantage at interviews.¡¯





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Television in politics

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Television has played a decisive role in politics in the past 50 years. Since the 150s television and American presidential politics have gone hand in hand. The power of television and its persuasive influence on the American political arena can be seen early in the 150s, yet its most historically profound era can be said to have started in the 160s. In 160 John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Richard Milhouse Nixon met in the television arena for 4 political debates. Those events are considered a milestone in television political history due to the vast audiences who tuned in. According to Grolier.com, “More than 70 million Americans saw the first debate, and audiences greater than 50 million people witnessed the other three. Probably the greatest consequence of the debates was to assure voters that the relatively young and inexperienced Senator Kennedy was capable of being president” (Grolier, 000). The persuasive power of television was from that time on seen as an indispensable tool in running a campaign and in keeping office. The effect of television on the voter populace is so great that candidates running for president rely heavily on media specialists to run campaigns in the form of image marketing and mass saturation of political advertisements. The reliance on the television has increased the costs of running a presidential campaign. In 15 the cost of running a presidential campaign was approximately 1 million US dollars. In the 000 federal election an estimated 00 million was spent by one party. The expense of television campaigning requires political parties to raise more money to have a fair chance at equal representation in the electoral arena. The down side is that democracy is not being served. Instead, private capital is being served by political promises for political contributions to pay for such increased costs as television air time. Parties or candidates without private interest monetary support do not get equal representation in a national form. But this was not always so. In the early years of television ex-president Dwight D. Eisenhower used television for the first time to campaign.

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The first American presidential campaign to take advantage of the television was that of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 15. The use of short animations and sound bites was an amazing success and allowed Ike, as he was called, to walk away with the election. A curious presidential character whose career was definitely affected by the media is Richard Nixon. First, during the 15 Eisenhower election, Nixon ran as a candidate for Vice President, and was under media scrutiny for a financial scandal involving an alleged secret political fund. In a public televised address he bared his entire life and financial record to the nation and he even mentioned receiving a black and white dog named Checkers from a little girl in a small town in the Midwest. Nixon sarcastically suggested to the nation that he would give up the dog if the federal auditors wished it. Then he identified with the public by using his children and stating, “And you know, the kids, like all kids, love the dog and I just want to say this right now, that regardless of what they say about it, were gonna keep it. It isnt easy to come before a nation-wide audience and air your life as Ive done” (Watergateinfo, 00). He made the federal investigators and the political opposition seem like they were picking on the underdog and that he was just a simple and honest family man just trying to do what was right. He concluded his address with, “But just let me say this last word. Regardless of what happens Im going to continue this fight. Im going to campaign up and down America until we drive the crooks and the Communists and those that defend them out of Washington. And remember, folks, Eisenhower is a great man. Believe me. Hes a great man. And a vote for Eisenhower is a vote for whats good for America” (Watergateinfo, 00). The Checkers the dog speech is considered to set the standard for audience persuasion in politics. Eight years later Nixon ran for President of the United States against John Fitzgerald Kennedy. The Kennedy Nixon debates of the 160s were some of the very first televised national political debates. The charismatic, youthful Kennedy was successful in beating Nixon not so much in his argument but with his appearance and charm. An unidentified author of a website article states, “The Kennedy-Nixon debates of 160 were the first such contests to be aired on television. The well-tanned and well-rested Kennedy won the viewing audience compared to the unshaven, sweaty Nixon. The Kennedy margin of victory was one of the slimmest in history, leading many historians to blame the TV debates for Nixons defeat.” In the years that followed, television would air Kennedy’s brains being splattered on his very photogenic wife’s pink dress. Lyndon Johnson would take the office of President. Then, because of the Vietnam War being fought each night on prime time television, Johnson refused to run again. Kellner states, “Lyndon Johnson decided not to run for reelection in 168 after he discerned that the antiwar forces were growing in popularity and militancy” (Kellner, p.5).



Nixon was eventually elected as President in 168. Part of his appeal at this time was appearing on televison as a personality and not just as a politician. Having learned years earlier during the now famous Kennedy-Nixon debates and even earlier with his Checkers the dog address, Nixon came to the people as a new president for a new generation. He appeared on such shows as the Jack Parr’s Variety Show and Rowan and Martian’s Laugh-In, where he recited the now famous line “sock it to me” and made his hand a peace sign. Nixon won a second term in office in 17 due to the corporate capitalist displeasure and television network’s lack of support of the candid George McGovern. Douglas Kellner, in his article Television and the Crisis of Democracy, states, “The corporate establishment was obviously uncomfortable with the liberal candidacy of George McGovern during the 17 election, and network television did little to promote his campaign thus helping Richard Nixon win his second term as president” (Kellner, p.55). 17 was a year Nixon would not soon forget.



Years later television would hound Nixon right out of the White House and into a waiting helicopter in 174. The scandal that brought Nixon down was called Watergate. Watergate is a plush Washington D.C. hotel that in 17 housed the Democratic Party National Committee offices. The offices were broken into and later it was proven that the Nixon office was responsible for political espionage. Tricky Dick, as Nixon was called, had no more dog speeches or clever one liners in his bag of Machiavellian tricks to save his political career. Vice President Gerald Ford tumbled in after Nixon’s resignation to take the role as President of the United States. Gerald Ford was often depicted as clumsy and incompetent on television. Television footage of him stumbling down stairs or running into people made him a great target for ridicule. “This stereotype was greatly popularized by a series of skits on Saturday Night Live featuring Chevy Chase who portrayed Ford as a man who was literally incapable of taking a single step without falling over or destroying something” (Wikipedia, 00). After Ford came Jimmy Carter and he was later defeated by Ronald Reagan. Reagan is where the rubber hits the road as far as television and politics are concerned.

Ronald Reagan, the actor turned politician, understood the power of the television medium and its influence on the general public, and subsequently expanded his administration’s office of communications. His masterful manipulation of the television medium earned for him the title the Great Communicator. According to The Museum of Broadcast Televison, the Reagan administration redefined politics and the use of the television as a political tool. The Museum of Broadcast Televison writes that, “His administration also greatly expanded the Office of Communication to coordinate White House public relations, stage important announcements, control press conferences, and create visual productions such as Thats America, shown at the 184 Republican convention. Image management and manipulation increased in importance because of television. Reagans aides perfected a new political art form--the visual press release--whereby Reagan could take credit for new housing starts while visiting a construction site in Fort Worth or announce a new welfare initiative during a visit to a nursing home” (Museum of Broadcast Televison, 00). Reagan’s Vice President, George Bush Sr.. was next on the presidential throne, followed by Bill Clinton. After years of social program cut backs and pro capital economic politics the general public elected Bill Clinton to make things right.



Bill Clinton, unlike Bush ,was youthful in appearance and was charismatic in demeanour and was often compared in the media to the late John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Clinton was a product of the hippy generation which appealed to the new liberal ethos being celebrated by a conservative beaten public. Clinton and his young family represented the new status quo, and the camera loved every bit of the Clintons. Clinton was like a celebrity right up until his impeachment. Battling foreign enemies wanted to kill him, sex and financial scandals pursued him in the media, yet still he smiled and waved. Finally, he could not wave anymore and he was asked to step aside. Next on the thrown was George W. Bush Jr., as the conservatives returned. The election was a very expensive one. The days of running about the country shaking hands and kissing babies door to door are all but pageantry in today’s mass communications arena. As the Reagan era has shown, the power of political persuasion is in image marketing, mass saturation and plain old movie magic. No institution has had a greater impact on the American government and its politics shaping as the media does. Yet its members are not elected by the people, and its motives are often driven by profit.

How does democracy get served if only the wealthy parties get the prime time television slots to get their message out to the greater viewing public? As it now stands, campaigning parties have to raise more and more money to pay for television time. Air time equals votes and votes are bought and so are presidents. The more money raised to run a campaign, the more promises made to big business interests such as those involved in the military industrial complex. Defence contracts are potentially worth billions of dollars to corporations. An organization who monitors corporations, Corp Watch, states that during the 000 election race between Al Gore and George W. Bush, “George W. Bush raised a $1,088,650 war chest, more money than any presidential candidate in US history, according to the Center for Responsive Politics. Al Gore came in second in the record donations, raising $1,00,5, more than any Democratic presidential candidate in history. And that doesnt include soft money contributions to the candidates” (Corp Watch, 001). If an election is won or lost on campaign contributions raised, then Bush was indeed the winner. Gore lost the election to Bush by a margin and the military industrial complex won on all accounts. Having won, the military industrial complex now had a war to fuel and budgetary promises of more cash coming down the American taxpayer pipeline.

According to the BBC News, in the United States, “Defence spending will grow 1% on the year to $7bn, while domestic security is to nearly double from $1.5bn to $7.7bn” (BBC, 00).This is the budget of 00 with a yearly increase of 40 billion a year. So with those kind of dollars at stake why would one of America’s largest defence contractors, General Electric, want to give up free time on its Network NBC to presidential candidates who do not have its best interests in mind? An example can be drawn from the Kellner article when he describes the displeasure of the corporate establishment and lack of network coverage of the McGovern campaign and McGovern’s liberal politics. George McGovern wanted to stop the war in Vietnam, and Nixon was committed to the war until 17. With a lack of financial backing and lack of television network campaign support, a candidate such as McGovern has little chance of voicing his or her political agenda. Without cash you can’t get on television to make your political appeal to the public, and without television you don’t win a United States presidential race. That was true in the 160s, 70s, 80s, and 0s, and it is true today.



The cost of running a political advertisement on television, according to some sources, increased 5% prior to the 000 United States presidential election. Cash and not democracy is the bottom line in American politics it would seem. A group calling themselves The Alliance For Better Campaigns hopes to rectify this injustice in the electoral process. In 1 ex-presidents Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter with legendary television news anchor Walter Cronkite also stressed the lack of representation in the American electoral process. The Alliance states, “Calling it a way to break the choke hold that money and ads have on our political system”, former Presidents Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford and former television anchorman Walter Cronkite today urged the television industry to open the airwaves to brief nightly issue forums for candidates in 000 (T.A.F.B.C.). The Cronkite, Ford and Carter team sent the letter to over 100 television executives, yet to little avail. Only an estimated 4% of those contacted agreed to free up time. The P.B.S. Democracy Project estimated that the average cost of an American political campaign televised spot runs between $7,000 and $0,000 US dollars. In the spirit of the Cronkite, Ford and Carter media appeal to fair democracy, American senators John McCain, Russell Feingold and Richard Durbin have introduced a legislative act in American congress named the Our Democracy, Our Airwaves Act. This Act “would require broadcasters to air at least a minimum level of candidate issue discussion in the weeks before an election, and to enable candidates to earn limited ad time by raising funds from small donors. The legislation takes a fresh approach to the enduring problems of money and politics. Rather than seeking to limit the supply of political money, it seeks to reduce the demand” (Alliance for a better Campaign, 00). With the reduced demand of political cash the influence of big business interests may also be reduced. Yet the fact that the majority of television stations around the United States do not want to free up time for political debate and coverage might signal redundancy of the political process entirely. Perhaps big businesses are only interested in getting their candidates in office, and do not want to lose money devoting prime time to candidates who don’t serve their interests. The fact that televison stations do not wish to free up time may just equate to plain old monetary greed. The following table is a cost breakdown of political advertisements in year 000, complied by The Alliance for a better Campaign. Television political campaigning is big business for televison stations and has been since the 150s. The reluctance of television stations to free up time for equal electoral democracy in the United States is tragic as it encourages big business interests and overshadows democracy. The Cronkite, Ford and Carter team, as well the American senator team of politicians, John McCain, Russell Feingold and Richard Durbin, are trying to reverse the effects of big business capital on national politics. Ideologically, television is thought to serve the people as a tool to entertain, educate and inform. The televised debates of the 160s informed the American people that John Fitzgerald Kennedy was not a young and inexperienced senator, but was an articulate statesman worthy of their confidence and vote. Nixon showed us in 15 in the Patches the dog speech that televison could be used as a means of persuasion by a political candidate. Television in late 160s created a situation where the exposure of anti war protests forced Lyndon Johnson not to seek another term in office. Television and politics in the 170s remained virtually unchanged in regards to how political candidates represented themselves. This all changed in the 180s with the emergence of an actor turned politician, Ronald Reagan. Reagan turned the televison into a political rhetorical instrument. The massive expansion of his communication department while he was in office plays homage to the fact. Reagan would set the pace for other presidents to come by being dubbed the Great Communicator. The increased reliance of televison in politics can be seen with the pursuant cost of running for and maintaining a presidential office in 000. With increased political costs come increased big business influence. This has reached a point where the average well meaning citizen wanting to make a difference cannot run for office without the backing of, not the American people, but that of the American corporation. The power that network television and big business have in determining presidential election outcomes is well illustrated by the Nixon and McGovern race. Considering the antiwar movement in full swing at the time, McGovern may have won the election, if only he had been given greater network television support. Ted Turner of now Time-Warner/Turner broadcasting once said, “The media is too concentrated, too few people own to much. There’s really five companies that control 0 percent of what we read, see and hear. Its not healthy.” Television needs to get into the democracy and not just into democracy’s pockets.

References

Alliance for a better Campaign. Summary Findings, (July 1, 00). Retrieved 11/05/00

http//www.bettercampaigns.org/press/release.php?ReleaseID=44

BBC News Online. Bush Unveils War Budget, (0/04/00). Retrieved 11/04/00

http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1787.stm

Corp Watch. Money and Politics, (10//001). Retrieved 11/04/00

http//www.corpwatch.org/issues/PII.jsp?topicid=106

Grolier.com. The American President, (000). Retrieved 11/04/00

http//gi.grolier.com/presidents/aae/side/pelect.html

Kellner, Douglas. Television and the Crisis of Democracy, (10). Westview Press Boulder. San Francisco. Oxford.

Modern tv. Naturally Nixon; the final feed, (1/07/18). Retrieved 11/0/00 http//www.moderntv.com/modtvweb/qtclips/nixon.htm#viewmov

T.A.F.B.C. The Alliance For Better Campaigns. Retrieved 11/0/00 http//www.bettercampaigns.org/press/release.php?ReleaseID=1

Watergate Info, Senator Nixons Checkers Speech, (September , 15). Retrieved 11/0/00 http//www.watergate.info/nixon/checkers-speech.shtml

Wikipedia The Free Encyclopaedia. Gerald Ford. Retrieved. 11/0/00. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Ford.



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Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Renaissance Art All roads lead to Rome

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All Roads Lead to Rome

The ideas of middle ages were that your role in life could not be altered, and the only thing one had to forward to was death. When the Italian Renaissance occurred, the hordes of people were ready for change, ready to enjoy life and all its wonders. Concentrating on ones matchless qualities and toiled with an enterprise to savor the beauty and the beauty of the observer. Men, who embodied the Renaissance and its great thinkers, are all superb examples of a universal Renaissance man. New ideas such as humanism, individuality, and a new outlook on religion, were portrayed by the artistic geniuses of the time like Botticelli, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo Da Vinci; all of whom depicted the galvanizing times through sculptures, poetry, portraits, and more.

In past times people were portrayed as undistinguished, in their presence and in what they did. People were considered boring and were also, never considered. Names were not given to these one-dimensional creatures they were referred to by whom they worked for, or what they did for that person. Not for what they stand for or their thoughts and feeling, but by their place in life. The lack of selfhood was due to the fact that observation drawn to oneself was uncouth and egotistical; on the path to heaven, people thought, beings should remain appreciative and humble. This would all change when artists started engraving their way into the world as painters with names and thought. This all started with the engraving techniques of Michelangelo, who wouldn’t stand for another man to receive acknowledgment for his workmanship. In the middle ages the people of the time did not have distinct faces and features, all the painting of people looked identical. Artists of the Renaissance did not bunch men together, but they put a name with a face. Portraits were being done of people with various names and features every day. Castiglione, a name given to a man, a man who set the bar for proper behavior by writing “The Courtier,” was painted by Raphael. A portrait of a real person, strutting his wealth and thoughtfulness. Raphael depicted him by his features and thoughts, not by his job.

Humanism was the appreciation of ancient Greece and Rome. The humanists considered the writings of the ancients as brilliantly written and an incomparable manner to the enhancement of life. The father of humanism, Petrarch, wrote elegantly of his adoration to the classic. He declared the present could not even compare to the past, there was simply no competition. The men who desired not to discover the classics and then deemed highly of themselves and their intelligence he claimed, knew nothing; they were just conceited. It was men like Petrarch whose love to antiquity made the humanist movement a success. The appreciation for antiquity did not end with literature, which is only one chapter of it, Botticelli displayed his love of the ancients in many of his creations. In Botticelli’s Primavera, he depicts mythological creatures of ancient Greece and Rome, a way to pay ohmage to the ancients for everything they have given to the world. The Birth of Venus, the title of this work speaks volumes, which was also done by Botticelli, Venus is a mythological figure in ancient Rome. This masterpiece also includes a thanks to the ancients by depicting them in a way of beauty that only Botticelli could. Titles give away so much, yet at the same time eludes one from what is underneath it all, like the Mona Lisa and The School of Athens by Raphael. The School of Athens embodies so much from architecture which resembles that of a Roman bath house, and in the middle of these domes we are forced to focus on two men, Aristotle and Plato. Once again pointing us to the times of antiquity emphasizing that modern scholars could be like the great scholars of the past.

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Michelangelo’s portrayal of the human body was one of the most impressive of the time. In true fashion of portraying the human being as an individual, Michelangelo’s sculptures were so real it looked like people placed inside his marble. It was his study of all the human organs, a study strictly banned by the church, that made such sculptures as lifelike as they appeared. His fourteen-foot statue of the biblical figure David embodied both the religious influence of the time and the study of man that were prominent and influential in his life. The statue of David, show his every muscle and his face is so real one would expect it to speak to them. When he painted the Sistine Chapel, his talents as a Renaissance man were evident. Not commonly known for his painting skills, he painted three hundred and thirty-six assorted figures. The nine strenuous years he spent alluded to the devotion to the church. Another attribution to the church was The Last Judgement. Unlike his early religious works that had been light and peaceful this masterpiece was brutally honest. He was now able to show the way the body moved, as well as its displays of unrestrained passion, overwhelming grief, or endless torment.

Leonardo De Vinci was said to be born before his time, actually I feel that he was born to show what a Renaissance man, should strive to be. De Vinci may have excelled in painting; but he also dabbled in sculpting, architecture, music, engineering, science, and many more. His interpretation of the Last Supper brought Jesus to life, as he has studied the human body, giving Jesus noticeable features along with the other patrons in the painting. Although one could add the blue prints for the flying machine to his name De Vinci real masterpiece was that on a woman referred to as The Mona Lisa. When you stare at this portrait, one gets drawn into her mind which is full of a superfluity of ideas of her and what she is thinking. She is an ode to feminine beauty. She is a little bit of every woman, past and present.

The achievements of these artists during the High Renaissance resemble the achievements of the time period, along with the time period of the ancients. Their works, compared to those of middle ages, were a true departure. Where nature was the main subject in painting were now that man is bigger than nature, he is the supreme being, according to the times of the Renaissance. Men were shown as men, their great attributes were finally being acknowledged and respected. The Renaissance men paved the road of success for future generations, but remember, all roads lead to Rome!





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Monday, July 23, 2012

Book report for "Inherit the Wind"Describe the relationship that Rachael has with her dad to that of your parents.

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The relationship that Reverend Brown has with his daughter, Rachael, is quite similar to the relationship that my parents have with me. Like Reverend Brown, my parents have high expectations and goals for me to accomplish. My parents can also be very ignorant, just like Reverend Brown. Even though Rachael’s father and my parents can be difficult, they both love and care for their child.

Rachael’s father and my parents are similar because they both have high expectations for their children. Reverend Brown expects Rachael to be highly religious and to follow the bible but she is not sure about what she wants to believe in. Reverend Brown also has strict boundaries for Rachael to follow and doesn’t want to see her become an outcast from society. Rachael is sometimes intimidated by her father. She is quoted saying, “I wanted to run to my father and have him tell me I was safe, that everything was all right. But I was more frightened of him than I was of falling.” Sometimes I feel this way when I make a stupid mistake or get in a lot of trouble over some of my careless actions. I’d rather be arrested and thrown in jail than to have my father give me a disappointed look and yell at me. I am more afraid of my parents because they are supposed to love and trust me. My parents would also like me to be a good catholic and to get good grades in every class but that just is not me. I can understand some of the pressure and guilt that Rachael is going through. When your own parents are upset with you, you get a feeling of loneliness like you have nobody to talk to. “It’s the loneliest feeling in the world-to find yourself standing up when everybody else is sitting down.” I can relate to this quote because I can understand the loneliness that Rachael is feeling and it’s not easy. Reverend Brown condemns the fact that Rachael and Bert may have feelings for each other and Rachael knows this. She is basically stuck in the middle and has to decide between Bert and her own father. Her father’s expectations for her are different than what Rachael would like them to be.

Another reason how my parents are similar to Reverend Brown is that they are ignorant. My parents are very quick to judge a person based on looks alone. Reverend Brown is not open-minded to the theory of evolution and he gets upset when any person could even think about betraying the word of the lord. He thinks that the theory of evolution is horrible and he doesn’t even have any background information on it. He needs to educate himself before he draws an opinion about something. My parents are somewhat the same way. They think that the music that I listen to is all bad and inappropriate but they don’t even take time to listen to the lyrics first. My parents also judge people they meet by the way they are dressed and immediately conclude who and what the person is. Reverend Brown describes Drummond by saying, “A slouching hulk of a man, whose head juts out like an animal. You look into his face and wonder why God made such a man. And then you know that God didn’t make him, that he is a creature of the Devil, perhaps even the Devil himself!” This was a very ignorant statement to make given the fact that he hasn’t even met and gotten to know Drummond yet. When my parents or Reverend Brown come up with a nasty conclusion about someone before even meeting them, that is ignorant and it frustrates me.

Finally, the last reason how my parents are similar to Reverend Brown is that overall, they are caring people. The reason Reverend Brown may be difficult to deal with is because he cares for Rachael and he wants her to be the best person that she can be. He doesn’t want to see her going down the wrong path or having loose morals. My parents also care for me because they also want what is best for me. They want me to be a good person and to be successful at everything I do. My parents do not want to see me turn to drugs or violence and that is the reason why they may have strict limitations sometimes. Reverend Brown is somewhat the same way. He doesn’t want Rachael to become anti-Christ or an atheist. It’s hard for him to see that his daughter may be headed down a path of different beliefs or “sin.” It’s traditional in society for someone to just go along with religion and not question it. He only wants what’s “best” for Rachael.

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As you can see, my parents are similar to Reverend Brown because they have high expectations and they want me to be the best person that I can be. Reverend Brown and my parents are also ignorant and not very open-minded to new ideas. My parents and Reverend Brown are also caring and they are just looking out for their child. Even though my parents or Reverend Brown may be difficult sometimes, they are doing it for good reasons.



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The World Is Cool

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Republicanism is a radical idealogy duplicated from the Roman Empire. It focuses on spreading power throughout ones government to achieve good life and social morality. Republicanism is run for the people, by the people. The main principals of Republicanism are that it is not a monarchy. It goes against everything monarchies stood for. Republicicanism gives the common man a say in how the things that effect his life are ran. Through Republicanism, society has found a new and inventive way to govern a country that is precise and effective.



Repulicanism and Republics are proven to be the most trustworthy and successful forms of government in the world. today. The foremost example of this is the United States of America. The most powerful country on the planet began as a small republic. The guidelines of Republicanism guided the infant United States to the world power it is today. As Mr. Thomas Jefferson stated, A government is republican in proportion as every member composing it has his equal voice in the direction of its concerns not indeed in person, which would be impracticable beyond the limits of a city or small township, but by representatives chosen by himself and responsible to him at short periods. Mr. Jefferson is explaining one of the many benefits of republicanism, that every person has a voice. The population elects representatives that go before the heads of state and demand what changes the common people are asking for. This keeps everyone envolved and not disgruntled. Another highlight of republicanism is that it has different branches of government. Each branch has the ability to overide another branch, thus preventing one branch from getting to strong and toppling the government. To quote Thomas Jefferson again, The Republican is the only form of government which is not eternally at open or secret war with the rights of mankind. Jefferson could not be more correct, for Republicanism is fair to all. Each citizen is entitled and granted their own rights in the Republican form of government. Republicanism does not clash with its citizens, it embraces them and allows them to make decisions that better the country as a whole.



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To conclude, the only logical form of government to use in this brave new world is Republicanism. Republicanism has proven to be a stable and long lasting form of government. Forms of government such as Monarchies and Communism have been unreliable and led to their countries demise or poor economical conditions. Yet, Republicanism can lead to a prosperis and stable economy. It is in the best interests of the people of this new country that Republicanism is chosen as the form of government because that is the only form with which the people, as well as country, can prosper.

Please note that this sample paper on The World Is Cool is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The World Is Cool, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on The World Is Cool will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Sunday, July 22, 2012

dgggggghhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh

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gggggggggggggggggggg1). I could have kept going and taken with me the truth of what had happened in that house (87). David is reflecting how if he would have left his house to go elsewhere and never comeback, his family would have never know that his Uncle Frank murdered Marie. David was the person that saw Uncle Frank in his house the day Marie died. The declarations that David makes against his Uncle Frank are very fundamental on making Wesley to arrest his brother.

). He had long since stopped being my father. He was now my interrogator, my cross-examiner. The sheriff (8). When David told his father about about seeing Uncle Frank in his house right after Marie died his father then started to interrogate him. After he told Wesely that he saw his Uncle in his house when Marie die, he then started to asked David a series of about what he saw that day. The questions that Wesley was asking his son where much more professional about trying to solve a crime, which made David think that he was now being interviewed by the sheriff that his father was of the town and not as his father.

). Wesley, repeated Grandfather. Get your ass in gear and get your brother out here now (115). At this time Wesley had just arrested Frank and instead of locking him in the jail, he locked him in their basement to save his embarrasment. After Davids grandfather learns about he immediately goes to Wesleys house to demand him to leave his son free. The above quote shows how much Davids grandfather cares about his son Frank and that he was his favorite son.

4). Ever since the war, Grandfather began, ever since Frank came home in a uniform and you stayed here, youve been jealous. I saw it. Your mother saw it. The whole goddamn town saw it (11). Julian Hayden who is Davids grandfather is referring to Wesley to be a jealous at his brother Frank for the simple reason that Frank was a war hero and he was not. After Frank returned from fighting WWII all the town prepared him a celebration where he was honor as a war hero. Moeover Julian is saying that the jealousy that Wesley feels about Frank is making him do everything that he is doing against Frank; like arresting him and locking him in his bsement.

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5). We were as close as Mercer County came to aristocracy. I never consciously traded on the Hayden name, yet I knew it gave me a measure of respect that I didnt have to earn (16). In the above quote David is acknowledging how his family name is a very significant name in his community. The way his community treated him made him believed that the Hayden family were considered superiors to others. The Haydens were as powerfull as anybody because the were the law of Montana. All of these characteristics were an important aspect about the Hayden family that made them earn all the respect that they had.

6). I looked up at her astride her horse, and all I could think of was- What did Uncle Frank do to you? Did he touch you there? There? What did he put inside you? (18). David is showing how the accussations that Uncle Frank was sexually abusing all his Indian patients were making him change the way he saw his uncle. Now instead of seeing him as the charming Uncle Frank, he was seeing him as the pervert Uncle Frank. Anytime David saw any of his uncle patients he would instantly start thinking about what might Uncle Frank have done to them while they were being checked by his uncle.

7). Since the moment this scandal had broken only a few days earlier, this was the most explicit anyone had been in my presence. My father actually said the word sexual in front of me! (141). Before the scandals that were made against Uncle Frank, Davids family was a very respectful family and would have never said a bad or an immoral word in the presence of David. Davids family was always being very careful of the commentaries that they made in front of David. However everything would change, now Davids family was not paying too much attention on those details of swearing in front him and David was being very aware of it.

8). David, I believe that in this world people must pay for their crimes. It doesnt matter who you are or who your relations are; if you do wrong, you pay (156). Davids father is admiting that in this world the law should be fairly applied to everybody. If somebody has committed a crime he/she should be punished and jailed no matter the relation of what you have with that perosn. Even though Frank was Wesleys brother he still continued to investigate and punish his own brother by locking him in the basement for all the crimes he commited. He showed how a loyal person he is to his job. hhhhhhhh

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Wednesday, July 18, 2012

the ECB

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THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK

The European Bank was established on the 1st of June 18. It was established to be at the forefront of the change to the euro. It was made to make the currency change easier for the member countries. The ECB does not just cover one country but is the central bank of 1 different countries each with their own culture, history and economic backgrounds. The European system of Central Banks (ESCB) is composed of the European Central Bank and the National Central Banks (NCBs) of about 15 EU states.

Since the 1st of January 1, 11 countries changed their national currency to that of the Euro; they included France, Ireland, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Finland, Portugal, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria and Germany. Then on the 1st of January 001, Greece also joined. Three of the EU states have not joined and they are Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Euro bank notes and coins were introduced on the 1st of January 00. The introduction of a single currency for about 00 million Europeans provide enormous benefits for both consumers and businesses. It facilitates the trading of goods and services between participating countries thus strengthening the Single Market in the European Union. The primary objective of the Eurosystem is to maintain price stability. It is their job to make sure that (with the same money) the same amount of goods and services can be bought. It has a vital interest in the efficiency and the stability of the banking industry, and is therefore natural for the Eurosystem to monitor developments in the banking sector. This is closely foreseen by the Treaty establishing the European community even though responsibility for banking supervision remains in the hands of the national authorities. Countries that wish to change their currency to that of the Euro will have to meet a number of economic criteria which include low inflation, low interest rates, stable exchange rates and sound public finances. Their national banks also have to be politically independent. The fulfilment of these criteria � also called the Maastricht criteria � has laid a solid foundation for the new currency before it was launched. The Eurosystem supports the general economic policies in the Community and act in accordance with the principles of an open market economy.

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The ECB has an advisory role in relation to the Community and national authorities on matters which fall within its field of competence, particularly where Community or national legislation is concerned. Finally, in order to undertake the tasks of the ESCB, the ECB, assisted by the NCBs, shall collect the necessary statistical information either from the competent national authorities or directly from economic agents.

The process of decision-making in the Eurosystem is centralised through the decision-making bodies of the ECB, namely the Governing Council and the Executive Board. As long as there are Member States which have not yet adopted the euro, a third decision-making body, the General Council, shall also exist. There are about 1000 (as of March 001) staff members at the ECB headquarters in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. They have been recruited from the 15 EU countries and work in close co-operation with the staff of the national central banks to prepare and implement the decisions of the ECB decision-making bodies.

The Governing Council is the highest decision making body comprises of six members of the Executive Board and the governors of the NCBs of the Member States without a derogation, i.e. those countries which have adopted the euro.

The Executive Board comprises the President, the Vice-President and four other members; all chosen from among persons of recognised standing and professional experience in monetary or banking matters. They are appointed by common accord of the Heads of State or Government of the 1 countries which form the Euro area.

The General Council comprises the President and the Vice-President and the governors of the NCBs of all 15 Member States. The General Council also contributes to the advisory and co-ordinating functions of the ECB and to the preparations of the possible enlargement of the Euro area.

The national banks of the three Member States which have not yet adopted the Euro i.e. Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom, do not take part in decision-making regarding the single monetary policy for the Euro area. These Member States continue to have their own national currencies and conduct their own monetary policies.

The Eurosystem enjoys full independence in performing its tasks; neither the ECB nor the national central banks in the Eurosystem nor any member of their decision-making bodies is to seek or take instructions from any other body. The ECB has its own budget, independent of that of the European community. The ECBs capital amounts to EUR 5 billion. The NCBs are the sole subscribers to and holders of the capital of the ECB. The subscription of capital is based on a key established on the basis of the EU Member States respective shares in the GDP and population of the Community. It has, thus far, been paid up to an amount just over EUR 4 billion. The euro area NCBs have paid up their respective subscriptions to the ECBs capital in full. The NCBs of the non-participating countries have paid up 5% of their respective subscriptions to the ECBs capital as a contribution to the operational costs of the ECB. As a result, the ECB was endowed with an initial capital of just under EUR 4 billion. When Greece entered the third stage of EMU on 1 January 001 the Bank of Greece paid up the remaining 5% of its subscription to the ECBs capital.

In addition, the NCBs of the Member States participating in the euro area have provided the ECB with foreign reserve assets of up to an amount equivalent to around EUR 40 billion. The contributions of each NCB were fixed in proportion to its share in the ECBs subscribed capital, while in return each NCB was credited by the ECB with a claim in euro equivalent to its contribution. 15% of the contributions were made in gold, and the remaining 85% in US dollars and Japanese yen.



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Saturday, July 14, 2012

KFC STRENGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

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The following is a Process Map for measurements of PJ’s coffee and Tea Co and the metrics selected. The product consists of the customer’s needs which include reliability, quality, and variety.

Reliability- The internal metric used for reliability was percent of returns or percent of remakes. The metric is appropriate because the customer depends on the service to be reliable, which is the ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. By measuring the percent of returns or remakes, this gives the service provider a look at how well they are serving their guests. If they continually have returns or remakes of items, they can conclude they are not efficiently providing a reliable service and thus need to improve this service quality. This measurement could be put into effect by having a computer system that records the number of remakes and reorders.

Quality- The internal metric used here was the percent of items repurchased and the number of repeat customers. This is appropriate because when the quality of a service or its products are absent and do not meet the customer’s expectations, the quality of service perceived by the customers is likely to suffer. When the quality is met and it reflects the consumers expectations, their perceptions are enhanced and purchase is likely to occur. By measuring the percentage of items repurchased, management will know what consumers view as quality products and therefore are repurchasing. This measurement would take place by having a system that records the items as they are being purchased. The system would graph the sales and inventory of a certain item that day as well as compare that item to another item’s sales and inventory. Management could then view which items are being repurchased more often and which are lagging in sales, which might represent poor quality.

Variety- The percent of different items was selected as a metric for measurement. This measurement was an appropriate selection because some consumers want variety and since consumers do want variety it is imperative that managers are aware of this and provide many options within reason. Managers would keep certain items that do well while eliminating others that do poorly. This measurement would take place by taking an inventory of the different items and keeping track of those items that are sold in the store as well as the drive thru. Management could sample its customers and directly ask if they feel there is enough variety among the menu at PJ’s. They could ask what items could be added to improve sales or what items could be eliminated to ultimately reduce costs.

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Another process is explaining, which consists of knowledge and clarity.

Knowledge- The metric that was chosen was managerial observation. This was appropriate because although hiring the right people and training them prepares them, actual knowledge is measured by observing or testing. In this case it is observation. If the employee is performing an action incorrectly or misinforms the customer, the manager is there to correct them. This measurement would take place by having a trained manager on duty at all times

Clarity - This customer need is one that is very important for both the customer and the employee. Whether the customer is at the drive thru or is face to face with an employee, this is the first point of service contact or interaction and could determine if a sale is made or not. This may be the time when customers form opinions about quality of the service due to friendliness of employees and other factors. In this example, clarity is illustrated as a customer need and the internal metric is percentage of times an employee has to repeat themselves. This was an appropriate selection because it is important for employees to speak clearly for customers to understand so they perform their role as a customer. If the employee hands them a cup and tells them to serve their own tea and does not speak clearly, the customer cannot and will not effectively perform their job. Therefore this measurement can implemented by managers having employees role play to see if they can perform their role as desired service providers.

The process of service consists of timeliness, convenience, and consistency

Timeliness- The method that was chosen was the average time it takes for a customer to enter and leave the store. This was appropriate because some consumers consider all the benefits they receive in an exchange as well as all sacrifices such as time and effort. Since service providers cannot completely control the number of customers and the length of time it will take for each customer to be served, customers are likely to wait to receive the service. Service providers need to be aware that most consumers hold a range of acceptable times for certain services. If a service consumes that time period they may get frustrated and leave. The measurement would be implemented by installing digital clocks next the register and above the drive thru window. The manager would set a desired time for employees every time an order is placed and the employees would have to meet or beat that desired time.

Convenience- The metric that was chosen was location and hours of operation. There are convenience costs of services. Many customers may have to travel to a service which may become inconvenient for them. If service hours do not coincide with the customer’s time availability, they may have to rearrange their schedules. This measurement would take place by managers actually measuring the percentage of customers from their target market who visit their location of business, if it is not many, they could think about offering delivery. The hours of operation could be measured by the amount of customers who visit during those times or those who complain about not being open until a certain hour.

Consistency- The metric that was chosen for this customer need was the percentage of repurchases or straight rebuys. A consumer wants company to have the same quality products every time they shop there. They want service quality and for it to be consistent. The selected metric is appropriate because if their expectations of quality are met at least ninety percent of the time they are likely to repurchase a product or service. Many times with convenience goods such as coffee and food, consumers will do a straight rebuy. As mentioned in the section of quality this measurement would take place by having a system that records the number of identical items repurchased. They are then compared to see which are being purchased more often.

The process of sales consists of stable prices, customization, and value.

Stable Prices - The metric used was percent of increased revenue. Price has to be determined carefully since buyers are likely to use price as an indicator of service quality and costs. Prices too high or too low may set expectations too high or lead to inaccurate thoughts about the quality of the service or product. Consumers expect to have stable prices when purchasing convenience goods such as coffee and food. With stable prices companies aim to retain and gain loyal customers. With loyal customers comes increased revenue through serving them over time. This measurement would take place by measuring and comparing the companies revenues from one year to the next to see if the revenues increased or decreased.

Customization- The percentage of products customized was the internal metric and is appropriate because through customization a firm can create customer loyalty by having the knowledge of what the customers want and expect in the service or product. Through the percentage of customized products, the firm knows exactly how many items they had to develop to fit the customer’s needs. The measurement would take place by having a button on the computer system that rings up the order as other and employee manually inputs the desired order. Management could look at this and think about possibly incorporating this creation onto the existing menu.

Value - Value can be defined by the consumer in many different ways and it is the buyer’s perception of total value that prompts the willingness to pay a particular price for a service or product. Here we define value as the quality the consumer gets for the price they pay. While the consumer may want convenience, they still wish to receive a high quality item for the price they pay. The company has to present benefits to the consumer. If the firm does this the consumer may translate his perception of the service into value. The internal metric of measuring the percentage of satisfied customers is appropriate because by measuring these customers the firm can get an idea of how their service is perceived and valued. The measurement would take place by using quantitative such as surveys to monitor and track the service performance and to close the gap between customer expectations and perceptions. Managers could walk around the store ask the customers if their service and products were what they expected and how they could possibly change to increase their value. Comment cards could be placed beside the chairs and tables for the customers to fill out and return to management.

The process of delivery contains timeliness and accuracy.

Timeliness- Again, timeliness correlates with responsiveness which is the willingness to help customers and to provide prompt service. Responsiveness and timeliness is communicated to customers by the length of time they have to wait for assistance, answers to questions, or attention to problems. The metric of the average time it takes to make and deliver order was chosen so the company can record the time it take from the time a customer orders an item to the time it takes for them to receive it. By improving this time a customer might notice the service performance and get their attention in a positive way and may exceed their expectations of adequate service. The measurement would take place as mentioned above, by placing a time digital time next to the register and above the drive thru window. Management will set a desired time for the service to be performed. When an order is placed the clock is set and employees need to meet or beat the expected time frame for performance of the service.

Accuracy- accuracy also correlates with reliability which would be for the provider to perform the service dependably and to the standards promised. The internal metric that was chosen for this was the percent of correct orders. This metric is appropriate for the provider to keep track of the number of returns. Customers want to do business with companies that can keep their promise about services they say they can provide. Many companies that do not provide the service that customers think they are buying fail their customers and thus may lose profit. The measurement would take place by having a system that records items when they or are returned or remade. This way management could view the items that employees are having trouble making or items that the customers were not satisfied with. With this information in hand, management could either think about retraining the employees or deleting an item from their menu and save costs.



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