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In order to identify which political party is responsible for the most social programs, one must first understand the ideology and history behind each party. Looking back in history, the United States (US) has always had a two-party system. During the Jefferson Era there was the opposition between the Federalists (those in favor of government control) and the Anti-federalists (those in favor for less government control). Now in the 1st century the competition is between the Republicans and the Democrats.
A Historical Briefing on the Republicans
In beginning, the Republican Party represented a certain kind of America nationalistic, Protestant, Anglo-Saxon, and those committed to a strong federal government. The National Republican Party was founded in 1854 by a coalition. The coalition was composed of former members of the Whig, Free-Soil, Know-Nothing parties, and Northern Democrats who were not satisfied with their party’s attitude toward slavery. (It was democrats who favored slavery and the republicans who opposed.) It was the Civil War and Reconstruction that gave the Republican Party solid strength in Washington. They controlled most of the elective offices in the North and for years after the war they denounced the Democratic Party as traitors of democracy.
“The Republicans did try to build support in the South by appealing to the long-established Whig groups there to join with newly enfranchised blacks. Republican leaders argued that Whigs and blacks had a common belief in the need for strong government action in society, but these arguments were ineffective in the face of racist campaigns by the Southern Democrats. Support for black rights waned when Republicans perceived that this support was costing the party needed votes, but even this did not help the party in the South, where the blacks were disfranchised and the whites for the most part remained Democratic.”
The republicans were often troubled by internal disagreements. The moderate and radical republicans often fought bitterly over war aims, slavery, and equality rights. Radicals wanted to use the war to end slavery and give slaves their freedom, but moderates rejected the idea that slaves could ever gain racial equality or justice. During the Industrial Revolution the party often quarreled about events such as prohibition, corruption in the government offices, industrialization, and immigration.
Then the Great Depression arrived. This era in America destroyed many Americans belief in prosperity and its faith within the Republican Party. This era caused the Republican support to drop dramatically, and with that decrease in votes, the Democratic Party won five straight elections over the next couple of years. During the 180 the party began taking a more conservative approach on economic and social issues in America. Over the next few years the Republicans battled through many issues, Watergate Scandal and the Iran-Contra affair, which left their party scorned. Now here in 00, the Republican Party is the most dominant party in the Senate and the House.
A Historical Briefing on the Democrats
The Democratic Party origins can be traced to the coalition, originally called the Republican and later the Democratic-Republican Party, that was formed behind Thomas Jefferson in the 170s to resist the policies of George Washington’s administration. The party then split into two factions during the presidential election of 188�the National Republican Party and the other became the Democratic Party.
The democrats were willing to use government power when foreign affairs threatened the interests of America, but they stressed that the national government should do nothing that the state and local governments could do for themselves. The party supporters were mainly southern plantation owners and immigrant workers in northern cities. They all had a common dislike of the government interfering in their lives, meaning that they opposed the Whigs (Republicans), who believed in using governmental power to promote, regulate, correct, and reform.
During the Civil War period, the Democrats refused to accept the fact that the country need to increase its government power in order to fight the war. The opposed the following factions draft, social changes, increased government power, Republican tariff and taxation policies. All those following things caused the Republican Party to charge them with disloyalty. During the Reconstruction period, the democrats made use of the race issue in the North, dealing with white hostility to blacks. As time wore on, the Democrats were not able to become a majority in the US, and they were only able to win when the Republicans were dealing with controversial issues that threatened their party. The party often dealt with factionalism among them, which cost them dearly when it came to presidential campaigns.
“Factionalism had always existed among Democrats, as different regional, social, and economic groups maneuvered to define the party’s stance and candidates; sometimes, as in the realignment of the 1850s, such factionalism cost the party dearly. Late in the 1th century, however, it got entirely out of hand, as three groups fought for control in an increasingly harsh atmosphere. One bloc comprised the traditional Democrats behind New York’s Grover Cleveland, who was president from 1885 to 188 and from 18 to 187. Strong in their memories of Jackson and the Civil War, they still espoused the conventional policies of limited government activities. A second group consisted of the urban political machines, which won the support of immigrants by helping them adjust to conditions in a new country. A third faction was made up of restive groups in the South and West, reacting against the new industrial and centralized economy. Angry farmers and small-town entrepreneurs, feeling badly squeezed by the new economic forces, wanted a shift of Democratic policies toward more vigorous government intervention in their behalf. They were strongly resisted by the traditionalists who ignored, were complacent about, or sometimes cooperated with the new forces the agrarians detested. The urban political machines remained at arm’s length from both, feeling estranged from their values and outlook.”
The party often lost votes because of its hostility to unions, strikes, and the civil service reform. In the mid-0th century, the Democratic Party began to change its image. In the 10s through the 140s, the party became a party which favored government intervention in the economy, social policies, regulation and redistribution of the wealth to benefits those who were less fortunate, and etc.
During the Great Depression, the democratic leadership allowed the government to expand its role in social welfare and economic regulation. During this period the democrats opened to polls to several new groups, such as blacks, who had been Republican for generations. It was this during this period that the Democratic Party controlled Congress in all but four of the 48 years between 1-181. As the party solidified its support among blacks, it lost southern whites and northern labor and ethnic voters. In 176, Jimmy Carter brought the south back into the Democratic “camp” for the first time since 144. The social values and the changing economic policies caused many southerners to shifted away from the Democratic Party.
After Regan and Bush, the Democratic Party regained the presidency in 1. It was the Democratic “period” which reenergized the economy and eliminated the deficit in one year, and by 18 the budget showed a surplus. In 17 the Democratic Party faced controversial issues for illegal campaign contributions and fundraising practices. Then in 18 the party was disrupted once again by claims that president Bill Clinton had an affair with White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. The Republican voted to impeach Clinton, but this event left the Republican Party scorned and rather helped the Democratic Party. In 001, after much legal dispute, Gore lost the election to George W. Bush. Many Democrats believe that their losses were an aftermath of President Bush’s popularity.
Democrats & Republicans�The Political Spectrum
“A Republican and a Democrat were walking down the street when they came to a homeless person.
The Republican gave the homeless person his business card and told him to come to his business for a job. He then took twenty dollars out of his pocket and gave it to the homeless person. The Democrat was very impressed, and when they came to another homeless person, he decided to help. He walked over to the homeless person and gave him directions to the welfare office. He then reached into the Republicans pocket and gave him fifty dollars.”
The Democratic and Republician Parties are the two most closely related parties which sit on the moderate scale on the Political Spectrum. The right wing in America is also known as Conservatism and the left wing is known as Liberalism. There are various different opinions about what is actually being measured along this axis
· Should the state foucs on equality (left) or liberty (right)?
· Should the government’s involvement with the economy be “interventionist” (left) or laissez-faire [policy of noninterference] (right)?
· Should the government be secular and separate itself from religion (left) or should the government take a stance of religious morality (right).
· Embrace change (left) or propose a justification for change (left).
“Those ideas normally ascribed to the Democratic Party are referred to as being to the ‘left’ of the political spectrum. Ideas associated with the Republican Party are often referred to as being to the ‘right’ of the political spectrum.”
The Left Wing is believes that the government should hold control over most private enterprises and believes that the government is responsible for securing social programs for the people. These social programs include medicare, Social Security, welfare, and things of that nature. The Right Wing believes that the state government has the upmost power to control their state, and that the government should not interfere if it is not utterly necessary.
So which party is responsible for implemented the most social programs and where does the money come from?
Through aggressive research, it has been found that the Democratic Party is responsible for the most social programs. It is only recorded that the Republican Party wants to cut taxes, but cutting taxes would create social policy cuts as well. In a republican “world” it has been founded that only the rich benefit from tax cuts and coroporations hire people who a willing to work for minimum-wage.
“Welfare reform [in republican practices] means that in tough economic times -- the very times welfare is needed most -- the government has little to offer the poor and the jobless. Those wealthy enough to walk away with one of President Bushs huge tax cuts arent complaining. Nor are corporations who can hire from an expanding pool of low-wage workers. But the rest of us, who find our jobs ever less secure and our community resources strained, are left to pay for poverty.”
It is the tax payer’s who pay for those social programs. Many complain about the increase in taxes and ponder about the benefits of tax increases. Tax increases help balance the budget and tax increases provide the public with social programs. Tax increases also allows our military to continue to defend our country. In the end the Congress can propose social programs but it is up to the President to enforce those social programs. (Or the Senate & House can override the President’s veto with -rd votes.) In short, social programs are paid for by taxpayers, but the social program itself is a refund to those taxpayers.
“Republican Party, Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 00
http//encarta.msn.com � 17-00 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
“Democratic Party, Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 00
http//encarta.msn.com � 17-00 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
“Republican & Democratic Differences”
“Political spectrum” Left and Right
“Teaching the Political Spectrum Providing a Vocabulary to Understand Political Viewpoints” www.lahapkido.com/teach.html
“The Role of Government in Society”
“The Political Spectrum,” http//www.d4.org/social_studies/political_spectrum/political_spectrum.htm
“Who Pays for Poverty”
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