Monday, August 29, 2011

the lottery

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“The Lottery” is a chilling narrative of the darkness of the human heart and mind.


The story is set on a beautiful summer day, in a seemingly ordinary village. The townsfolk gather for a lottery, wherein the winner receives a prize most unusual death.


Shirley Jackson makes powerful use of irony and symbolism. She describes the day as being euphoric and full of life, though it is in contrast with the atmosphere of the town and of the people gathered in the square. The lottery is officiated by Mr. Summers, whose name emphasizes the ultimate irony, as further seen when he is helped by the postmaster, Mr. Graves. It is also quite ironic that Mr. Adams, whose name suggests human feelings and desires and who was the first to bring up the topic of quitting the lottery, is also the one to first stone Tessie. The black box from which the townsfolk draw their slips of paper, is the symbol of death, as it becomes the very vehicle through which the prize of the ‘winner’ is delivered.


At first glance, one might see Tessie as the hero of the story, whose voice in the end professes that the lottery ‘isn’t fair’ and that ‘it isn’t right’. As a matter of fact, Tessie is a coward, as big a coward as the people of the village were. Until her own life was in danger, she did not dare be an outcast of the community and resist the ritual. She was even willing to put her own daughters’ lives on the line.


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It is truly unbelievable that these civilized people consent to something as primitive as the lottery. All the members of the community participate in this ceremony, knowing full well that one of them will soon be dead. However, they still continue to do nothing about it. But what the people of the village have been doing is playing God. They have no respect for life, as seen in the slips of paper used in the draw. They don’t care if the person to be killed is a neighbor, a friend, a spouse or a son or daughter. They say it is in the name of tradition, but the truth is, unconsciously, they enjoy the killing. They relish in the power they have the power to have another’s life in their hands. Yet, they believe themselves to be civilized people, with their tractors and taxes, and Halloween and square dances. But do civilized people kill for no reason?


Perhaps the saddest thing in the whole story is not the senseless killing, but rather, the fact that the children, in their early age and innocence, are brought up believing that killing people in the name of ‘tradition’ is proper. They are required by the ceremony to participate in a ghastly ritual of cold- blooded murder. These children, who are supposed to be the hope of the future, are shown by their parents the wrong example, as they go about killing people who are innocent, on the grounds of having drawn a paper with a dot on it.


If only somebody dared speak against this atrocious ritual, he or she might have been able to open the minds of the others and let them see for themselves the horrors they are casting upon their own selves.





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Sunday, August 28, 2011

-

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In figs. 1, , and the current rating if the transformer secondary is that flowing through the load since there are no ramifications of the circuits other than the non conducting diode(s) where no current flows, so the current rating can be calculated by simply dividing VL by RL. So the current rating in the secondary is the maximum that can be born by the diodes and that is Vmax/RL.


First, w can see that VDC in circuit 1 is approximately half of that in fig., which is approximately half of that in fig.. First, fig.1 is a half-wave rectifier, that is the signal passed by the diode that reached the load is only the positive part of the 7.5Vrms signal so the mean is reasonably half that of full-wave rectifier of the same input voltage, which will pass the absolute value of the signal giving a mean of (mean of positive part).


Second, the ripple voltage is the same in figs.1 and , 10.5 V, since we are using the same voltage supply which is approximately 7.5 and the voltage drop that is across the diode is the same in both circuits since the current passes by one diode in each case. (In fig. the voltage drop is across the conducting diode). As for fig. the ripple voltage is of 0.7 V, that is approximately the double of that in the previous two circuits. But if we take the ripple facto we can see clearly that the ripple factor is the same in fig. and fig. and is equal to the half of the ripple factor in fig.1, that is also due to the fact that fig.1 is a half-wave rectifier and fig. and are full wave rectifiers.


Third, for average and peak currents, we are the one that fixed the average current to 50 mA in the load but what varies is the peak to peak current in the diode. We can clearly see that the current in fig 1 is far higher than that in figs. and and that is due to the fact since the voltage is half its value the current must be twice its value, and here we have it a little more than twice.


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Fourth, the peak inverse voltage is the voltage across the non-conducting diode or the voltage across the diode when it is non-conducting. In fig.1 since we have only one diode the peak inverse voltage has got to be half that of that in fig. While in fig., we have an input value that is the double of that in fig. but we have in each path one more diode so, at each diode the peak inverse voltage is equal to half its value in the whole circuit that is why it cam out to be equal to the peak inverse voltage measured in fig..


Finally, the percent regulation can be easily compared between the three circuits. As we move from fig.1 then then we see that the percent regulation is shrinking with 4.6 % for fig.1 to .8% for fig. and 1.% for fig.. The regulation is mainly due to the fact that diodes are not ideal and have a certain voltage drop. As for the transformer requirements, we have to be careful to choose a transformer that can take a secondary current rating that matches the peak diode current measured and diodes that can bear that high currents, especially in fig.1.


From table-A we can derive the conditions under which each of these circuits is advantageous. If we want a low DC, average, voltage we have to use fig.1 with a ripple factor of . while if we want a medium average voltage, fig. is the best and finally we can choose fig.. And the regulations are very close to each other even if fig. has the best percent regulation.


For the circuit shown in Fig.4_____________________________________


As it appears in table-1, VC does increase with increasing C, because when C increases Vr decreases and thus VDC=Vmax-Vr/ increases.


Also, Vr decreases when C increases since RC time constant increases thus the capacitor will take more time to discharge and by the time it will begin to charge again it would have lost less charges that with a lower C so the Vr is inversely related to C.


The ratio IF/IDC varies also with C. for values of C not too large we can see from table-1 that as C increases IF/IDC increases but when C reaches a value that is too large it can be charged enough to immediately deliver current that would lead to a decrease in IF.


The approximate relations that are included in the theory section are valid when Vr is small (in the mV range) and that is what appears in table- above. And the ripple voltage is small when the C has large value, in reality when RC has a large value, so we can consider these relations valid for C=1000ìF for R=680 Ù, and for C100 ìF for R=.kÙ.


We can see that with an increasing C, VDC increases so if we take V0 to be the no-load voltage, (VDC-V0)/V0 will decrease in absolute value making the regulation more adequate, and this can be explained by the fact that the ripple becomes smaller and smaller making the signal grow steady.


IF must be compensated for in the capacitor filter, so it must be added to the current rating because we want to get a transformer that can take such a high current as well a s a diode that can take such a high current.


For a certain required Vr and VDC/IDC, the rms voltage rating of the secondary can be calculated from the relation in the theory section _


VDC=Vmax-Vr/ Vmax= VDC+ Vr/ Vrms=( VDC+ Vr/)/?


We have Vr=Vmax/(ðfRLC) C= Vmax/(ðfRLVr) C= (VDC+ Vr /)/(ðfRLVr)


In figs. 1, , and the current rating if the transformer secondary is that flowing through the load since there are no ramifications of the circuits other than the non conducting diode(s) where no current flows, so the current rating can be calculated by simply dividing VL by RL. So the current rating in the secondary is the maximum that can be born by the diodes and that is Vmax/RL.


First, w can see that VDC in circuit 1 is approximately half of that in fig., which is approximately half of that in fig.. First, fig.1 is a half-wave rectifier, that is the signal passed by the diode that reached the load is only the positive part of the 7.5Vrms signal so the mean is reasonably half that of full-wave rectifier of the same input voltage, which will pass the absolute value of the signal giving a mean of (mean of positive part).


Second, the ripple voltage is the same in figs.1 and , 10.5 V, since we are using the same voltage supply which is approximately 7.5 and the voltage drop that is across the diode is the same in both circuits since the current passes by one diode in each case. (In fig. the voltage drop is across the conducting diode). As for fig. the ripple voltage is of 0.7 V, that is approximately the double of that in the previous two circuits. But if we take the ripple facto we can see clearly that the ripple factor is the same in fig. and fig. and is equal to the half of the ripple factor in fig.1, that is also due to the fact that fig.1 is a half-wave rectifier and fig. and are full wave rectifiers.


Third, for average and peak currents, we are the one that fixed the average current to 50 mA in the load but what varies is the peak to peak current in the diode. We can clearly see that the current in fig 1 is far higher than that in figs. and and that is due to the fact since the voltage is half its value the current must be twice its value, and here we have it a little more than twice.


Fourth, the peak inverse voltage is the voltage across the non-conducting diode or the voltage across the diode when it is non-conducting. In fig.1 since we have only one diode the peak inverse voltage has got to be half that of that in fig. While in fig., we have an input value that is the double of that in fig. but we have in each path one more diode so, at each diode the peak inverse voltage is equal to half its value in the whole circuit that is why it cam out to be equal to the peak inverse voltage measured in fig..


Finally, the percent regulation can be easily compared between the three circuits. As we move from fig.1 then then we see that the percent regulation is shrinking with 4.6 % for fig.1 to .8% for fig. and 1.% for fig.. The regulation is mainly due to the fact that diodes are not ideal and have a certain voltage drop. As for the transformer requirements, we have to be careful to choose a transformer that can take a secondary current rating that matches the peak diode current measured and diodes that can bear that high currents, especially in fig.1.


From table-A we can derive the conditions under which each of these circuits is advantageous. If we want a low DC, average, voltage we have to use fig.1 with a ripple factor of . while if we want a medium average voltage, fig. is the best and finally we can choose fig.. And the regulations are very close to each other even if fig. has the best percent regulation.


For the circuit shown in Fig.4_____________________________________


As it appears in table-1, VC does increase with increasing C, because when C increases Vr decreases and thus VDC=Vmax-Vr/ increases.


Also, Vr decreases when C increases since RC time constant increases thus the capacitor will take more time to discharge and by the time it will begin to charge again it would have lost less charges that with a lower C so the Vr is inversely related to C.


The ratio IF/IDC varies also with C. for values of C not too large we can see from table-1 that as C increases IF/IDC increases but when C reaches a value that is too large it can be charged enough to immediately deliver current that would lead to a decrease in IF.


The approximate relations that are included in the theory section are valid when Vr is small (in the mV range) and that is what appears in table- above. And the ripple voltage is small when the C has large value, in reality when RC has a large value, so we can consider these relations valid for C=1000ìF for R=680 Ù, and for C100 ìF for R=.kÙ.


We can see that with an increasing C, VDC increases so if we take V0 to be the no-load voltage, (VDC-V0)/V0 will decrease in absolute value making the regulation more adequate, and this can be explained by the fact that the ripple becomes smaller and smaller making the signal grow steady.


IF must be compensated for in the capacitor filter, so it must be added to the current rating because we want to get a transformer that can take such a high current as well a s a diode that can take such a high current.


For a certain required Vr and VDC/IDC, the rms voltage rating of the secondary can be calculated from the relation in the theory section _


VDC=Vmax-Vr/ Vmax= VDC+ Vr/ Vrms=( VDC+ Vr/)/?


We have Vr=Vmax/(ðfRLC) C= Vmax/(ðfRLVr) C= (VDC+ Vr /)/(ðfRLVr)


In figs. 1, , and the current rating if the transformer secondary is that flowing through the load since there are no ramifications of the circuits other than the non conducting diode(s) where no current flows, so the current rating can be calculated by simply dividing VL by RL. So the current rating in the secondary is the maximum that can be born by the diodes and that is Vmax/RL.


First, w can see that VDC in circuit 1 is approximately half of that in fig., which is approximately half of that in fig.. First, fig.1 is a half-wave rectifier, that is the signal passed by the diode that reached the load is only the positive part of the 7.5Vrms signal so the mean is reasonably half that of full-wave rectifier of the same input voltage, which will pass the absolute value of the signal giving a mean of (mean of positive part).


Second, the ripple voltage is the same in figs.1 and , 10.5 V, since we are using the same voltage supply which is approximately 7.5 and the voltage drop that is across the diode is the same in both circuits since the current passes by one diode in each case. (In fig. the voltage drop is across the conducting diode). As for fig. the ripple voltage is of 0.7 V, that is approximately the double of that in the previous two circuits. But if we take the ripple facto we can see clearly that the ripple factor is the same in fig. and fig. and is equal to the half of the ripple factor in fig.1, that is also due to the fact that fig.1 is a half-wave rectifier and fig. and are full wave rectifiers.


Third, for average and peak currents, we are the one that fixed the average current to 50 mA in the load but what varies is the peak to peak current in the diode. We can clearly see that the current in fig 1 is far higher than that in figs. and and that is due to the fact since the voltage is half its value the current must be twice its value, and here we have it a little more than twice.


Fourth, the peak inverse voltage is the voltage across the non-conducting diode or the voltage across the diode when it is non-conducting. In fig.1 since we have only one diode the peak inverse voltage has got to be half that of that in fig. While in fig., we have an input value that is the double of that in fig. but we have in each path one more diode so, at each diode the peak inverse voltage is equal to half its value in the whole circuit that is why it cam out to be equal to the peak inverse voltage measured in fig..


Finally, the percent regulation can be easily compared between the three circuits. As we move from fig.1 then then we see that the percent regulation is shrinking with 4.6 % for fig.1 to .8% for fig. and 1.% for fig.. The regulation is mainly due to the fact that diodes are not ideal and have a certain voltage drop. As for the transformer requirements, we have to be careful to choose a transformer that can take a secondary current rating that matches the peak diode current measured and diodes that can bear that high currents, especially in fig.1.


From table-A we can derive the conditions under which each of these circuits is advantageous. If we want a low DC, average, voltage we have to use fig.1 with a ripple factor of . while if we want a medium average voltage, fig. is the best and finally we can choose fig.. And the regulations are very close to each other even if fig. has the best percent regulation.


For the circuit shown in Fig.4_____________________________________


As it appears in table-1, VC does increase with increasing C, because when C increases Vr decreases and thus VDC=Vmax-Vr/ increases.


Also, Vr decreases when C increases since RC time constant increases thus the capacitor will take more time to discharge and by the time it will begin to charge again it would have lost less charges that with a lower C so the Vr is inversely related to C.


The ratio IF/IDC varies also with C. for values of C not too large we can see from table-1 that as C increases IF/IDC increases but when C reaches a value that is too large it can be charged enough to immediately deliver current that would lead to a decrease in IF.


The approximate relations that are included in the theory section are valid when Vr is small (in the mV range) and that is what appears in table- above. And the ripple voltage is small when the C has large value, in reality when RC has a large value, so we can consider these relations valid for C=1000ìF for R=680 Ù, and for C100 ìF for R=.kÙ.


We can see that with an increasing C, VDC increases so if we take V0 to be the no-load voltage, (VDC-V0)/V0 will decrease in absolute value making the regulation more adequate, and this can be explained by the fact that the ripple becomes smaller and smaller making the signal grow steady.


IF must be compensated for in the capacitor filter, so it must be added to the current rating because we want to get a transformer that can take such a high current as well a s a diode that can take such a high current.


For a certain required Vr and VDC/IDC, the rms voltage rating of the secondary can be calculated from the relation in the theory section _


VDC=Vmax-Vr/ Vmax= VDC+ Vr/ Vrms=( VDC+ Vr/)/?


We have Vr=Vmax/(ðfRLC) C= Vmax/(ðfRLVr) C= (VDC+ Vr /)/(ðfRLVr)





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Friday, August 26, 2011

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Thursday, August 25, 2011

The role of museums and galleries in the artworld.

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Art Galleries and Museums play an important role within the artworld. The artworld can be related to exhibitions, museums, critics, historians, artists, the public, audiences, patrons and collectors. The museum is important as an institution of power, a place of contemplation, entertainment, education and conservation. The museum also acts as an agent of social change and also as a representative of the artists. The establishment of the academy and salons as museums and institutions helped to maintain cultural traditions. The armory show and artists such as Stieglitz act, among others, as agents of social change. Museums or institutions are of a fundamental importance for educational purposes as well as for providing a place of entertainment and contemplation for audiences.


Museums and Galleries function most significantly as places of power and contemplation. Throughout the 18th century, to possess art was seen as a symbol of power and authority. During the French Revolution, however, the private collections’ of wealthy French aristocrats were seized. This meant that that power was then transferred from rulers to the people. The power maintained by galleries and museums can be seen as a result of its legitimation of history and aesthetics. In regards to the museums as a place of contemplation, as an audience, we are conditioned to be reflective and thus view exhibitions, almost as though a religious experience. Society has been socially conditioned by museums to behave in a contemplative and reflective manner when viewing objects in museums and galleries. As a result of their power and authority, the behaviour expected for a church is not dissimilar to that of an art gallery or museum, which is reflective, contemplative and reverent.


The academy is well known as a form of museum/institution and a place of cultural consciousness or a keeper of culture. The academy is a panel of judges who decides which works should be entered into the salon. The Academy tended to prefer paintings that were tradition in style and content and looked to the art of the past as a guideline, rejecting anything that was different or innovative. As evident, the academy held strict rules and guidelines which were followed for over two hundred years. Up until the late 1th century, William Bouguereau, artist of “Virgin and child” (188), believed in and created works which met the criteria necessary for the academy. Bougeuerau voiced his opposition to “new art” through press releases such as this “ Today people want to get there too quickly, new forms of aesthetics are invented haphazardly, pointillism, piddleism!” The academy had a very powerful influence on teaching methods, style and choice of subject matter in the art world throughout the 1th century, where they maintained cultural traditions.


Museums or galleries such as the salon and the first impressionist exhibition, acted as agents for social change. During the late 1th century artists such as Manet featured in the salon of the refused. The Salon of the Refused, was a gallery which exhibited contemporary works which did not meet the criteria necessary to gain entrance into the academy. Manet’s work “luncheon on the grass” was a very controversial work which gained great criticism from its audience and distaste from critics, such as those of the academy. The work contained a naked women, lunching with two clothed men and looking directly at the viewer. The first impressionism exhibition opened in 1874 and gained much media and public attention. With artists such as Picasso and Delacroix, the gallery created a riot in the art world. The gallery exhibited new works of individualism and were a complete rejection of the works and styles present in the gallery. The salon of the Refused and the first Impressionist exhibition acted as agents for social change as they displayed works which differed in style to that of traditional art, and therefore reflected the changes in society at this time.


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The Armory show had a profound impact on Americans when it was first established in the 1880s and became a significant agent of social change. The art, displayed and exhibited throughout America was like nothing seen before, thus creating curiosity among society. This art was used to influence the public attitudes and values. As opposed to traditional art collections, the armory show was a collector of reactive works and therefore platforms for social change. By the time the armory show had reached Boston, over 400,000 Americans had seen the show and the media coverage was astonishing. There were a significantly large and growing number of museums and galleries which displayed “new and reactive works”. These included, the salon des refuses, the first impressionist exhibition, “blockbuster” exhibitions, post impressionist exhibitions and the armory show. Art in this context is used to influence the publics attitudes and values, and Museums are institutions that are able to change society’s beliefs, due to their power and authority.


Museum and galleries are fundamental importance in their provision of entertainment and education for its audiences. Museums were originally established to show artifacts that otherwise would have been privately owned, however, in more contemporary times, they are meant as places of study and of display. In regards to education, the academy had a set of strict rules and guidelines for over 00 years which heavily influenced the artworks created during this era. In regards to entertainment, the armory show gained an audience of 70,000 in New York alone, and by the time it had reached Boston, had been viewed by over 400,000 Americans. The reason why this show gained such a large audience, was because of its individual characteristics, being nothing else like it and therefore creating great curiosity among society. Between 75% and 5% of all visitors to the museum are accompanied by friends proving its function as a form of entertainment. The Armory show was an icon and form of entertainment because of its unusual and bizarre nature. By placing a certain construction on history of the past or more recently, on our own culture and other cultures, museums and galleries are responsible for educating and entertaining all those that attend.


In conclusion, Museums and galleries play a significant role in society. Not only do they provide a place of education and entertainment, but they act as agents of social change. Towards the end of the 1th century, there was an evident growth in the number of museums and galleries that displayed works, which were individual and contradictory to the academy guidelines. The armory show was extremely controversial and popular at the time as were many other exhibitions, which were new and individual in its characteristics. Museums and galleries also act as a venue of power, contemplation and therefore are able to easily influence society. Museums and galleries are important in their actions of maintaining cultural traditions and representing changes in society throughout time.


Internet Sites





• http//www.essentialart.com


• http//www.city.ac.uk/artspol/world-comm.html


• http//www.oas.org/culture/series4.html


• http//www.empireclubfoundation.com/details.asp?SpeechID=157


• http//wfscnet.tamu.edu/courses/wfsc41/lecture1/sld01.htm





Books


• Gardner, Art through the Ages, tenth edition.


CD-Rom


• Microsoft Encarta.


Class Notes/references


• Art reader J.E Vaughan, Defining the museum as a cultural concept.


• Visual arts reader Term One, case study number Framing the Museum


Please note that this sample paper on The role of museums and galleries in the artworld. is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The role of museums and galleries in the artworld., we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on The role of museums and galleries in the artworld. will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Friday, August 19, 2011

Development Phase

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Development Phase


After exploring the war theme we began to develop our own piece of drama.


I used certain explorative strategies from the medium such as form, movement, mime and gesture, music and symbols to help me develop my piece of drama.


We also discussed how we could improve our drama piece using elements such as role-play, cross cutting and marking the moment. Discussing these helped us come up with ideas on how we could use them to link things together and how we could incorporate them into our piece. We used symbols as are main explorative strategy. We discussed how we could include a symbol throughout our piece of drama and what the symbol could represent. In the end we decided that our symbol would represent death.


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We chose death. As death is related to war and would fit in with all the pieces of texts that we are using in our final piece of drama. The symbol was combined of a gesture and a chant. Four members of our group began beckoning for me whilst chanting “Your time is up, come with us”.


This was effective because it got the point across to the audience that my time was up and I had to die and that death had come to get me and take me away. After we had discussed ideas and wrote down a general structure to the play, we began to put it together.


The play consisted of three pieces of text. The painting of the Napoleonic War by Goya, the Disaster of the Twin Towers and the poem ‘Suicide in the Trenches’, which was set in World War One.


Although we did not dictate any of the poem we still used the World War One theme. Of the man killing himself in the trenches to help us with our war theme, as we thought it linked in very well with the other two pieces of text.


The play began as we brought Goya’s painting to life 0 seconds before the scene on the picture. We used the symbol in this section to represent death coming for the religious civilian.


This section was abstract we then used this form to link to the next section by changing the form to naturalistic.





The next section was on the text ‘Suicide in the trenches’.


We started the piece off with an argument between a father and his son. We constructed this argument to sound as if the father was making the boy go to war but he was only making him go to the shop. We then showed the father about to hit the child, but as his hand came down simultaneously there was a knock on the door this marked the moment.


The section further continued showing the soldier as a child enjoying playing army in the street as a game. We then suddenly changed the army game into having to go to the real army.


We did this by changing the form and the tempo. We changed the form back into abstract and slowed the tempo down. We then added sad music, which created a sad atmosphere.


The sudden change of mood helped us get across to the audience that war isn’t all its made out to be. Getting this point across that war isn’t all its made out to be links in with a section of the poem when the author talks about ‘smug faced crowd’s with kindling eye, laugh as solider lads march by’. We then incorporated the symbol again showing that death would come soon for this person as he was going to war.


Again we had another sudden change of form as a group member burst in telling us all to get down. This part showed the people fighting the war. We decided to show some of the things the boy might have been going through in the poem.


We chose to show shell shock. We got this across to the audience by having the people still fighting the war but with no sound and the soldier stood up holding his head in his hands and walking round realising what war was all about.


Whilst every thing was silent (apart from the sad music) the soldiers got up turned and acted out the symbol again which then linked our next piece of text. We ended our symbol with me (the soldier) shouting “NO” as if to say no to death and then continued on to say “no more coke left” which marked the moment.


We then continued on to our next piece of text, which was the disaster of the twin towers. After I had said “no more coke left” I spoke about the plane being delayed to get across to the audience that we were in an airport. Whilst we were talking there was a still image on the other half of the stage. When we finished talking we froze and the other still image was brought to life we did by using cross cutting and still images.


When the still image came to life it displayed a man getting reading to go to work at the twin towers then freezing and cutting to us on the plane being hijacked. I was thrown into my seat by a terrorist as I hit the seat the plane hit the twin towers and there was an explosion. We got the point of the explosion across to the audience by marking the moment and bringing the other still image to life at the same time showing both sets of people being affected. We then linked this explosion back to the world war one text. We did this by linking the explosion of the plane to an explosion in the war. Again we showed people at war. Then as before everything went silent but instead of the soldiers moving they were still. I walked round and as I went to touch one of the soldiers they died. This represented that everything the soldier had he lost as if he had the touch of death. This got across to the audience what the soldier was going through. After this the soldier killed himself. We then chose to use the symbol again but instead of group of people there was just one person but instead of refusing to go the solider accepted and said, “My time is up”. We used one person as we thought it could represent the grim reaper because he was the final bringer of death, unlike the others who tried to coax him into death. So therefore in the end he decided and nobody else.





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Wednesday, August 17, 2011

Poetic Enlightenment

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Being … Enlightened


I stood outside in the rain and thought about what it meant to be enlightened.


I felt it.


I tried to connect with the world. I stood in the rain, looked up at the clouds, breathed in the fresh air and thought wow.


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I thought about the ones without homes.


Without shelter.


Without warmth.


Without food.


I thought about those other cultures, other than the one I know, where this is life.


This is beautiful and this is real.


I thought about the ones who live outside, who breathe and live in nature and they know nothing else.


Where survival is the skill, but it’s still the battle between nature and man.


Just a different kind.


Then I breathed.


Inhaling life.


Exhaling death.


I breathed again.


And while breathing I gazed at the wonder above.


What to some is known quite simply as


The Sky.


Yet can that three-letter word truly define all that is infinite in this world?


As I wonder these amazing questions I see birds of a feather flock together.


I think for a moment about that old English saying…


But then I see the nature of life right before me.


People who are connected, who share a bond will always be together.


They share something that they share in themselves and this is that one moment where you can look in the mirror and see a reflection of beauty,


yourself.


And as the birds fly away I continue to stare and ponder.


Trailing behind is a bird on it’s own.


Is that the representation of the one we leave behind?


Or perhaps lost somewhere along the way?


Or is that person just there for another reason?


Lost?


Kept a distance by choice?


I conclude that in my brief encounter with the sky, I experienced everything to life in a moment bonding with what is real. Life.





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Phantom of the Opera

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Phantom of the Opera


For my paper topic I chose to attend a showing of the classic Broadway show, The Phantom of the Opera. The show opens up at an auction of opera memorabilia at the Paris Opera House. An old man by the name of Raoul bids for a strange musical box which appears to hold some special memory. After the remains of a chandelier are revealed the play leaps to the past when Raoul was in his prime.


A new opera is in rehearsal, and the manager of the opera announces his retirement after the show. While he is introducing the new manager a backdrop from the stage falls, and nearly takes out the leading lady. The people who are involved with the play believe that the falling backdrop was not an accident, and was the work of “The Ghost.” The leading lady storms off the stage leaving the production with out a star. Madame Giry, the ballet mistress, hands the managers a note from the opera ghost demanding a salary and a free box at the opera. Meg, Madame Giry’s daughter, suggests that her friend Christine Daae could take the role of leading lady. Christine has been taking singing lessons but refuses to say from whom.


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Later in the story the audience finds out that the person who has been giving Christine her lessons is in deed the man who has been haunting the opera house. In the story Christine ends up with Raoul, which angers the phantom greatly. After the phantom kills a couple people a mob of angry people come after the phantom, who has managed to take Christine hostage. In the end the phantom lets Christine go and disappears.


Overall I enjoyed the opera very much. I felt like the scenery was great, and the singing was incredible. It amazed me to hear songs that were sung with that much skill live. I had heard it before on c.d.’s and on television but there is nothing like hearing it in person. The costumes were elaborate and beautiful and definitely left the impression of a high dollar production.





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Tuesday, August 16, 2011

A Clash of Cultures

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Abstract


The clash of cultures between skiers and snowboarders has brought about many new problems to the United States ski-industry. Resorts and local skiing mountains have to start looking at ways to maintain stability within the industry while not altering the sense of freedom that both skiers and snowboarders obtain from their activities.


Introduction


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The United States ski-industry has begun to see an increase in popularity in general, but there have been some negatives. James C. Makens writes about the quarrel between skiers and snowboarders in many aspects, but focuses mainly on the challenge that ski resorts and the ski-industry have to face. The article written by Makens entitled, A Ski-industry challenge, explains the main points of conflict between these similar activities and the lifestyles that surround them.


The basis of this article is to bring attention to a changing market that must be attended to soon or else the whole ski-industry and related industries will be affected. The solution to this problem is subjective, but Makens believes that fear-reducing strategies will help ease the culture clash. By reducing the fear that currently occurs between skiers and snowboarders, then each side will be able to understand each other’s culture better and be able to live and play harmoniously.


Results


Makens makes some very important points in the article stating how each activity has it’s own culture and lifestyle to it, thereby creating a collision of ideals and attitudes. There is a definite clash between reasoning behind each activity. Makens claims that most skiers are concerned about alpine pleasure, which is the enjoyment of the natural environment and the tranquility of the surroundings. On the other hand, also discussed in the article is that snowboarders focus more on the adrenaline rush of their activity by desiring more extreme situations, equipment, and overall speed.


There is the fear factor that Makens claims to be one of the major reasons why skiers and snowboarders do not meld well. Each activity has its own style to it, but because of the change in attitude and the increase of slope velocity through technological advances, collisions no matter what form have become feared. Even though collisions have always occurred, they are often nowadays seen as being intentionally caused by one-side acting out of release of constraints.


Makens also states that corporations in the ski-industry do not believe that fear is the major concern, but that hassle, cost, and competition are the majority of challenges to skier retention (Makens, 001). Separation of skiers and snowboarders was a possible solution for resorts to construct and implement. There is statistical data that promotes segmentation and physical separation of downhill snowsport participants (Makens, 001). This idea lacks the reasoning behind the entire ski-industry’s basis of existence. People choose to ski and snowboard because of the freedom they have and the overall control they possess. There is an assumed result of decreased participants if you take these benefits away from people who use them as a basis to continue the sport.


Synthesis


The issue presented in this article is surrounding the concept of a changing market (Gee, 16). A changing market is something that every industry will encounter over time. An industry can be altered by something as extreme as a plane crash (September 11, 001 NYC World Trade Towers) or scientifically based, such as a technological advances. Many factors can contribute to the need for revolutionary ideas on how to embrace the change and use it positively for the sake of the industry.


The ski-industry has been introduced to snowboarding, an ever-growing trend in the United States and all over the world, which makes for an automatic problem in usage of the mountains and ski resorts. Skiers no longer have the right of way and must share the space with snowboarders. There are many differences between these two cultures, such as style, attitude, and equipment needed. Winter resorts and the ski-industry in general have been put in a position where they must either embrace this new population by enhancing their mountains and programs or keep the two cultures separated, usually focusing on increasing profits with only one particular sport.


Analysis


The snowboarding vs. skiing issue has just recently gained increased attention. Snowboarding has been embraced in many areas where normally skiing would have dominated alone. The reasoning behind this action is the obvious increase in profitability of the sport with an increasing number of people, mostly the youth population; there will be more chances for moneymaking. Snowboarders and skiers continue to hold differences in attitude and style, but have started to learn how to inhabit together for the main reason of lack of resources. Mountains have started to become overcrowded, thereby requiring skiers and snowboarders to share the space in closer areas then usual. With more skiers trying snowboarding as a recreational activity, there has been more understanding and connection between the two cultures.


Opinion


The article is thorough and detailed when discussing the main points of conflicts between skiers and snowboarders. The article was attempting to give background information for a topic that continues to be an existing issue in hopes of gaining support in trying to find the solution to the problem. Makens does not stay neutral in the discussion, which makes the article lack value. With a more neutral position on each factor presented, the article would gain credibility and would have both skiers and snowboarder’s insights. The information in the article was easy to understand and analyze, allowing for non-skiers and non-snowboarders to be able to have an opinion on the subject.


Summary


Overall, Makens challenges the reader to look closer into the conflicting cultures of skiers and snowboarders, but fails to include the similarities that do exist within them. This issue is important because it shows how a changing market can sporadically occur. It also demonstrates the lack of society input in the situation, such as cooperation and understanding between snowboarders and skiers, which could potentially improve the entire population affected. There needs to be collaboration between winter resorts, the ski-industry, and the people to achieve a fair and useful solution that will end the conflict.


References


Gee, C.Y. (16). Resort development and management (nd ed.). Michigan Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association.


Makens, J.C. (001). A ski-industry challenge. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 4(), 74-7. Retrieved September , 00, from ProQuest database.











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Monday, August 15, 2011

Comparing the opening scene of two different versions of Shakespeare’s’ Macbeth

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Comparing the opening scene of two different versions of Shakespeare’s’ Macbeth


I am going to look at two different versions of Shakespeare’s Macbeth and study the differences in the first scene and why they have been changed in different ways.


Both the Welles and the Polanski versions are similar to Shakespeare’s version, but have been slightly altered. Welles has extended the dialogue by adding in the ingredients of the witches cauldron. This helps not only create an eeriness as the ingredients are strange, but also gives a more foul image of the witches’ as the ingredients are revolting. Because the dialogue has been changed to include this, it is immediately known who the three characters are, as the revolting ingredients are very stereotypical of witches. The first line in the Welles and the Polanski version is said by all the witches, whereas in the Shakespeare version, it is said by only one of the witches. Having all the witches say the first line helps catch the viewers attention as it seems more dramatic, it also brings the witches together as a unit. The Polanski version has been shortened and simplified slightly. Less is said creating a mysterious effect and also leaving more to the imagination. It is not as obvious that the three characters are witches in the Polanski version, this also makes the characters seem mysterious. The Polanski version seems a lot less rehearsed then the Welles version, making you think more about what is actually going on. Both versions end with the same line


“There to meet with Macbeth”.


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This brings both scenes to a close explaining what they are planning, and it also incorporates the name of the film.


The dialogue is delivered in very different ways within the two versions. The witches in the Welles version have strange voices making the dialogue stand out. It also makes them appear different creating an uneasiness about them. The dialogue flows smoothly making it seem as if the witches know what the others are going to say. This once again makes them appear more of a unit. The witches pause before saying the last word, ‘Macbeth’. This helps make more of an impact on the name as there is silence before it is said making you think about what is happening. It is said in a whispery voice making it stand out from the rest of the dialogue which means you are more likely to remember it. In the Polanski version, the witches has relatively normal voices. They sound old, as they speak slowly. This gives you more time to concentrate on what is being said, and to think about what is happening. When the witches speak together, they do not speak at exactly the same time. This makes it look a lot less rehearsed and creates a strange ‘droney’ sound making it more mysterious and haunting. The witches stop briefly in the middle of the dialogue to carry out an action. This also gives you more time to look at what they are doing and think about what is happening. Apart from that, there aren’t any definite stops during the dialogue, once again showing it to be less rehearsed then Welles version.


In the Welles version, there is a constant background music. The music is slightly strange and scary, which creates an eeriness about the witches. There are little sound effects as there is music, but there is the sound of the cauldron bubbling. This makes the ingredients seem even more revolting as the sound of the bubbling is unpleasant. The music stops briefly before the witches say their last word ‘Macbeth’. As I explained, this is make a bigger impact on the name. The music changes slightly when the credits roll. It turns into more of a marching music. This could symbolise many things. The first thing that comes to mind is the fact that the story contains many battles and marching is often associated with soldiers. There isn’t any background music in the Polanski version until near the end of the scene. There are however, many sound effects. The fact that there is no music helps emphasise the isolation of the witches and the fact they are in a very desolate place. This is emphasised even more with the use of the sound effects. There is the sound of a bird, this once again makes the place seem very far from civilisation. There was also the sound of the three witches and their actions which sound loud as there is no background music. Towards the end of the scene, There is music. However, the music is very strange, and is in no way tuneful. It is in a minor key which helps the scene to appear very eerie.


The three witches in the Welles version are easily recognised as witches. They are wearing long black cloaks which is stereotypical of witches. As I mentioned, their dialogue is also very stereotypical of witches meaning you can immediately recognise them as witches. The witches in the Polanski version are not so stereotypical. They look very ragged, making you immediately aware that they are different to normal people. However, it is mainly due to their dialogue that they are recognised as witches, and not so much their image.


The Welles version is black and white due to the fact it was made in 148. The witches appear as silhouettes on a cliff against a whitish sky. This means that there isn’t a clear view of the witches and what they look like, creating an eeriness about them. The scene consists mainly of shots of there cauldron which is bubbling violently. Together with the dialogue, the whole scene seems rather sickening as the image of the cauldron bubbling is not pleasing to the eye. The contents of the cauldron appears to be black and very thick, showing that many ingredients have been put in. The last word ‘Macbeth’ is said as they hold up a doll that they have created from the mixture in the cauldron. This shows that the doll is meant to represent Macbeth. The first shot in the Polanski version is a long shot of the horizon. The clouds in the sky move very quickly showing time passing and to help create a mysterious setting. The fact that a long shot is used shows us how isolated the place is. It appears to be a waste land with little life. The witches then meet here and the camera shots are all very close up to show in detail what they are doing. There is a brief long shot of a seagull to once again show the silence of the place. As the witches depart, the camera stays still and the witches move further and further away from it into the mist. They eventually disappear as the screen becomes overcome with mist and changes to the title screen. This gives the effect the witches are just disappearing to somewhere we do not know. The title fades on, and then fades off again, giving no definite ending to the scene creating an uneasiness. The music doesn’t change through-out the title scene.


On the whole, I think the visual images in the Polanski version leave you with more to think about, whereas in the Welles version it is easily known what is going on.


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How effectively does Owen convey the horror of war?

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How effectively does Owen convey the horror or war?


I am going to analyse the poem ‘Dulce Et Decorum Est’ by Wilfred Owen and attempt to answer the following question


“How effectively does Owen convey the horror of war?”


I believe that throughout this poem, war is described as an awful thing where everyone suffers. He manages to convey this horror well by using many different methods.


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The first paragraph generally sets the scene of war and the state the men are in. The men are described as ‘beggars’, this suggests they are living in poor conditions and in many ways are like beggars. The next line backs this up


‘Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through the sludge,’,


as this once again suggests they are in bad condition, and that they are having difficulty walking on the muddy ground. The poem says that many of the men had ‘lost their boots’ showing that they had very little during the war, and that they had to keep on going even in bad conditions. The line


‘But limped on, blood-shod.’,


conveys a sense of pain within the men. The word ‘limped’ suggests they are moving painfully and slowly, and the word ‘blood-shod’ simply shows they were covered with blood.


The first verse on a whole suggests the men have given up all hope. The men no longer care


‘Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs’,


as this shows they have turned their backs on the war and the memories of death. The next line gives the impression the men are slowly nearing their death


‘And towards our distant rest began to trudge.’,


as if the words ‘distant rest’ means death. It could also simply mean the men have a long journey before they can rest again. As the men are shown to no longer care about the war, they are also shown to have become zombie-like and desensitised to all the horrors around them. The men are described to ‘march asleep’ as if they are too tired to think about their actions. The following line also helps emphasise this fact


‘All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots’,


as this once again shows they are too tired to think. This also conveys a sense of numbness of emotions, as if the men have shut their senses down as to avoid the horrors of war. This is very effective as it gives the impression war is too horrific for the mind to take.


The second verse talks of an event, but the impression is given that the event would rather be forgotten. It shows a sense of panic among the men


‘Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!- An ecstasy of fumbling,


Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;’


as they are fumbling to get their helmets on in time in order to save their lives. The words ‘clumsy’ and ‘fumbling’ are used well and are effective as they help emphasise the sheer panic the men are in. The word ‘ecstasy’ is also a very effective word to use as it suggests the men have an adrenaline rush due to the intensity of the situation. The verse describes one of the men to have not made it in time, and to have ‘drowned’ under a ‘green sea’.


The verse generally gives the impression the green sea is a greenish gas. In the line


‘And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime...’,


Owen has used a simile that gives the impression the gas burns, and that this is something that he would rather forget. In the next line, everything is described to be dim


Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,’


this could show that his memory is ‘misty’ as he wishes to forget once again emphasising the horror of war. The impression is given that the gas is thick as one of the men is seen to be ‘drowning’ as if he is engulfed in the gas. The third verse is closely linked with the second verse as it helps emphasise that he wishes to forget these horrific events. I think the third verse is the most effective verse within the poem as it is short and therefore really grabs your attention. The lines


‘In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,


he plunges at me, gluttering, choking, drowning.’,


really shows that you can only begin to imagine the horror Owen saw during the war. The words ‘helpless sight’ suggest that no matter what he did he had to watch, he was helpless and could not avoid the awful sight of the man drowning in the sea of gas. The word gluttering is an unpleasant sounding word which suggests the man is struggling to breathe, this is also an onomatopoeic word.


The last verse summarises what he has said and really emphasises just how horrific war really is. Throughout this verse Owen has directed what he is saying at the reader by using the word you


‘If if some smothering dreams you too could pace


Behind the wagon that we flung him in,’.


The words ‘smothering dreams’ once again suggest he could not escape what he saw. The second line backs up the fact the men had no energy as they flung the man into the wagon with little effort.


Owen has made good use of cacophony throughout the third verse


‘And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,


His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;’,


As he describes the dead man. Its describes a lifeless sense as the mans face has become slack and his eyes have become empty. The devil is mentioned to be ‘sick of sin’. This is effective as it suggests that even the devil, who is associated with evil, is sick of war as it is so horrific. In the next few lines he has once again used cacophony to really emphasise how sickening war is. The line


‘If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood


Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,’,


Suggests painful slow movement which has already been conveyed in the first verse. Owen has used the words ‘gargling’ and ‘froth-corrupted’ well as they are cacophonous and show what a sickening sight the dead man really is. This also suggests innocent people have become diseased and their bodies have been corrupted by war. War is conveyed as a sort of punishment that innocent people do not deserve to receive


‘Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,-‘,


and that they do not deserve to die this way.


The last four lines bring the whole poem together as it gives the impression war is not what people make it out to be and it will not bring you glory. Once again, it is directed at the reader which works effectively as it makes it more personal.


On the whole, Owen manages to convey the horror of war very well. He has mainly done this through the use of cacophony to emphasise how sickening war is. The poem is well written and has described what war is really like.





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Sunday, August 14, 2011

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SUMMARY WRITING


Writing a summary is like losing weight! For example, if we wish to reduce our bulk, we need to do two basic things


1 completely cut out things which are unnecessary, and


cut down on those things which are essential but in too large a quantity.


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Before we can do these two things, however, we need to get a general idea about what in involved.


TOPIC 1 - TITLES


When we read, we should try to find out the main thought in the writer’s mind. Before considering longer passages let us look at a few lists of words. If I write Great Britain, Malawi, Egypt, China, Russia, what am I thinking about? You might write Countries.


Ex. 1 -- Look at each of the following lists of words and suggest a title for each.


1A Blackbirds, canaries, sparrows, budgerigars, gulls.


B Daffodils, daisies, roses, sweet peas, carnations.


C Aeroplanes, trains, ferries, buses, liners.


D Boots, slippers, shoes, sandals, wellingtons.


A Cottages, bungalows, flats, villas.


B Flies, bluebottles, beetles, wasps, bees.


C Pianos, accordions, organs, guitars, violins.


D Football, cricket, rounders, tennis, badminton.


E Oak, ash, elm, chestnut, beech, willow.


A Tables, chairs, sideboards, wardrobes, beds.


B Cups, saucers, plates, bowls, jugs.


C Wood, coke, coal, gas, oil.


D Novels, dictionaries, encyclopedias, manuals, atlases, biographies.


E Trousers, coats, vests, jerseys, socks.


Let us consider another list.


Title


France, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Belgium Countries


The suggested title is Countries. Perhaps you could think of a more exact title. You might suggest Foreign Countries, or even European Countries, which is even more exact.





Now look at each of the following lists and suggest a more exact title for each group


Title


4A Cows, pigs, horses, sheep, goats. Animals


B Lions, tigers, elephants, kangaroos, zebras. Animals


C Buses, cars, lorries, vans, coaches, bicycles. Transport


D Yachts, hovercraft, liners, ferries, canoes. Transport


E Apple trees, peach trees, plum trees, pear trees, cherry trees. Trees


5A Daffodils, tulips, hyacinths, snowdrops, crocuses. Flowers


B Buttercups, daisies, dandelions, bluebells, thistles. Flowers


C Football, netball, rugby, basket-ball, volley-ball. Games


D Mutton, pork, beef, venison, veal, ham. Food


E Cabbages, lettuces, potatoes, turnips, cauliflowers. Food


6A Strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, blackcurrants, cherries. Food


B Caps, hats, turbans, berets, hoods, sou’westers. Clothes


C Cola, limeade, orangeade, lemonade, ginger beer. Liquids


D Spade, hoe, rake, fork, trowel. Tools


E Salmon, herring, cod, haddock, trout. Food


Ex


After you have read the following paragraph carefully, study the titles underneath it.


1 Over the past few years bats have been declining in numbers. The high price of bat skins encourages the hunters who are out to make money. Also, as potholing becomes more popular as a sport, bats are more likely to be disturbed during their long winter sleep in caves and tunnels. If bats are disturbed too often they will die. It is little wonder that we hear reports that some species are already low in number.


A The long sleep of the bat


B Potholing as a sport


C The decrease in the number of bats


Which of the three titles best expresses the main thought of the paragraph?


The writer mentions ‘the long sleep of the bat’, but that is not the main thought in his mind. He also mentions ‘potholing as a sport’ since it accounts for possible disturbance. The main thought in the writer’s mind is C The decrease in the number of bats


The other things are mentioned to explain why this is happening.


Read the following paragraph. Below it are three titles. Select the one which best describes what the paragraph is about.


George always looked forward to Saturdays. How delightful to think there was no need to get up early, no last-minute rush and no school. If the sun shone he would play football in the park; if it rained he would watch television. It was true that he enjoyed the youth club on Tuesday evenings and the inter-school games on Wednesdays, but then he also had to go to school on those days. Saturday could be a day of relaxation or excitement or both, and, best of all, a chance to stay up late at night.


A George the footballer


B Best day of the week


C Saturday delights


TOPIC � KEY IDEAS


Ex. -- Read the following paragraphs. After each there are suggestions as to what is the main thought in the writer’s mind. Decide which is the correct one in each case.


1 Sound is made by something moving back and forth. If you stretch a rubber band and pluck it, you can watch it vibrating and listen to the sound it makes. A mosquito’s wings hum and leaves rustle in the wind. These are different kinds of sounds, but when the mosquito’s wings are at rest and the wind dies away, the sounds stop. To have sound there must be movement.


A sounds made by mosquito’s wings


B movement-making sounds


C stretching elastic bands





James had read that other animals are frightened of the lion’s roar. Perhaps that was true but he gave it little thought until the night when he watched a circus on television. As the lions left the ring, Leo roared loudly. Suddenly, Monty, James’ cat, scampered out of sight beneath the settee and Tim, his spaniel who had been asleep on the mat, barked furiously and raced to the door. The two pet animals were certainly very frightened.





A the circus show on television


B the lion’s frightening roar


C James’ pets


For most children the month before Christmas cannot pass quickly enough. There will be holidays from school, the shops will look bright and gay and perhaps there will be snow on the ground. Which girl or boy does not dream of the presents to be opened on Christmas morning? Later there is Christmas dinner, and in the evening party games, television, or just a rest from the excitement of the day. But it all seems so slow in coming -- a whole month away.


A holidays from school


B looking forward to Christmas


C playing party games and receiving presents


4 Let us all help to keep our streets tidy. It is so sad to see some people dropping litter anywhere they please. Not only that, but they are often the ones who complain that street cleaners do not keep our streets clean. If only everyone would put their litter into the bins provided or, better still, take it home, our streets would look attractive, the police could spend more time catching criminals instead of litter louts and the street cleaners would have less unnecessary work to do. But everyone must help, and that includes you.


A the work of public servants like the police and street cleaners


B the prevention of litter


C public responsibility


5 Teacher Now we shall read. Start where we left off yesterday.


Pupil Thee leetle sheep


Teacher Not ‘thee’, say ‘the’.


Pupil The leetle sheep �


Teacher No! The little ship!


Pupil The little sheep �


Teacher Not sheep, you ass, but ship.


Pupil The leetle ship.


Teacher Are you deaf? I’ve already said ‘little ship’, not ‘leetle ship’. Start all over again.


Pupil Thee little ship �


The teacher is teaching


A how to spell


B how to pronounce


C how to understand meaning


6 Prosecutor I suggest, Mr Jones, that you did see Tom Davies at the road


junction.


Mr Jones I was not looking in the direction of the road junction. I don’t know if he, Tom Davies, was there.


Prosecutor In which direction were you looking?


Mr Jones I can’t remember.


Prosecutor So how do you remember you were not looking towards the


Junction when Tom Davies passed?


Mr Jones Because if Tom Davies was at the junction, as you say, I would


have seen him.


Prosecutor How do you know you would have seen him?


Mr Jones Because you say he was there, and I know him, and if I had looked towards the junction, I would have seen him.


Prosecutor You are lying. You did see Tom Davies at the road junction.





The main question was whether


A Tom Davies was at the junction


B Mr Jones was looking towards the junction


C Mr Jones saw Tom Davies at the junction


TOPIC -- TOPIC SENTENCE


Ex. 4 -- Pick out the sentence which describes the general theme


1 There are many different kinds of computer games on the market today. Some involve attacking invaders from space, others require the player to use his skill at catching things such as toys or eggs and yet others involve racing against the clock. These games vary in price and can be purchased for between $0 and $50.


I was in the canteen recently talking to my friend, Angela. I told her about a certain teacher I did not like. I said the teacher looked like a horse and spoke like a hippo. Just then, someone tapped me on the shoulder from behind. It was the teacher. People have a habit of being in places at the wrong time while others have a habit of speaking at the wrong time.


On an autumn day in 1854, Miss Nightingale and her team arrived at the Barrack Hospital at Scutari on the shore of the Bosporus. The conditions at the hospital were utterly deplorable. Some patients had beds near windows from which they could see into the central courtyard of the hospital, and out from the window of the operating-room came flying amputated arms and legs, making an ever-increasing pile on the pavement. From their beds wounded men watched. Miss Nightingale immediately gave orders for the rotting mass of human flesh to be carted away. Already, her organising power was beginning to be felt.


4 Suddenly, as the track wound through a particularly dense stretch of jungle, I saw lying in front of me a really treacherous-looking patch of mud, between five and ten metres in length. Only one of those old Argentine farm carts with wheels four metres high, I thought, would stand much chance of getting through it. Then I noticed an old tree trunk lying in this mud along the full length of it. If the ground underneath the trunk was still firm, I could hack away the undergrowth at the side of the track with my bush-knife and drive over this hazardous stretch with two wheels on the log and two on the verge that I had cleared. (‘O’ level 86)


5 More remarkable even than the size of America’s immigrant population was its diversity. Indeed, except for France and Spain, there was not a country in Europe which did not contribute substantially towards the peopling of America. There were also sizeable numbers from Asia and China, and from Canada and S. America too. Thus, the U.S.A. represents an extraordinary variety of nationalities, races, cultures and religions. (GP )


Ex 5 -- TOPIC SENTENCE AND KEY IDEAS


Read the following passage


Domestic animals which go astray and have to fend for themselves often become so wild that they will attack human beings. The following story is about a British teacher in Singapore who was terrorised in his own home by a cat which had been domesticated but which was now completely savage.


One evening quite recently, Mr Tony Wharton and his family went to bed as usual, leaving open one of the bedroom windows for their own cat, Tiddles, to enter or leave the house. At about two o’clock in the morning, Mr Wharton was awakened by a frightful wailing sound coming from inside the bedroom. Thinking that the sound was being made by Tiddles, Mr Wharton got out of bed to see what was the matter. Suddenly, there was a loud hissing sound and a ball of fur equipped with razor-sharp teeth and claws hurled itself at Mr Wharton and before he could do anything, his arm and hand were ripped and torn and dripping blood.


Another story tells of the encounter between a jogger and a savage dog. Mr Richard Lin was running along Portsdown Road last November as he did every evening when from nowhere appeared a large black dog which barked angrily and bared its teeth. Mr Lin tried to run away as fast as he could but the dog quickly caught up with him and sank its teeth into his ankle. The dog was later caught and shot and Mr Lin had to have injections against rabies.


The first thing we must do is to try and understand what the passage as a whole is about. If you were to answer in a sentence, which one below would you pick out to sum up the passage ?


A Mr Wharton and the savage cat


B domestic cats and dogs which go wild and attack men


C domestic animals which go wild and attack people, or


D domestic animals with sharp teeth and claws


IDENTIFY KEY IDEAS


Which of these statements sums up paragraph ?


A Foolishly, Mr Wharton left his bedroom window open.


B A certain British teacher in Singapore was attacked by a wild cat quite recently.


C Wild cats can cause serious injuries to human beings.


D Wild cats hiss and have sharp teeth and claws.


Which of these statements sums up paragraph ?


A A jogger was attacked by a savage dog last November.


B Savage dogs bark angrily and bare their teeth.


C Mr Lin should not have run away from the savage dog.


D People usually have to have injections against rabies if they have been bitten by savage dogs.


Now, if we add the topic sentence and the key ideas, we get


Domestic animals which go astray and have to fend for themselves often become so wild that they will often attack human beings. For example, a certain British teacher in Singapore was attacked by a wild cat recently. Moreover, a jogger was attacked by a savage dog last November.


Ex. 6 � Revision. Read this passage. Pick out the general theme sentence and then select the key ideas from the statements given. Write out a paragraph combining the controlling theme with the key ideas. Use linking words where necessary.


The number of crimes committed by children has been increasing all over the world. Many reasons have been given for this.


Firstly, it has been noted that in the twentieth century, family breakdown is common and divorce rates have been rising. In times of conflict between parents, children are often neglected so they seek attention in different ways. The influence of their friends is often very strong so that children will often do anything to gain approval and acceptance to make up for the loss felt at home. Committing crime is one way of getting attention.


Key idea 1 choose one of the statements �


A Lack of attention at home makes children seek the company of friends.


B The influence of friends causes children to turn to crime.


C Rising divorce rates may mean more neglected children and therefore more crime.


D Children from broken homes always turn to crime.


Secondly, as societies change rapidly with educational, economic and technological development, some people reach the top whereas others are left behind. The ones who lose out in the race for success and wealth may turn to crime in order to keep up with their more lucky counterparts. On the other hand, others less fortunate may turn to crime in opposition to those who have ‘had it lucky’.


Key idea choose one of the statements �


A The more society develops, the more crime we have.


B As society develops, there may be an increase in crimes committed by children who lose in the race to be successful.


C As society develops, two types of people emerge the less fortunate and those who have ‘had it lucky’.


D Success and wealth may make people turn to crime.


Summary


Ex 7 -- REVISION


Can you find the main ideas in a longer passage? Read the following three paragraphs and from the list below each one select what you think is the main idea in that paragraph.


1 There was excitement in the air as the people of Paris crowded the banks of the Seine in their thousands to see if Fulton’s ship could really sail against the current of the river. Some thought it possible, but many more doubted it. Fulton himself was very worried about the possibility of failure. He watched anxiously as smoke poured from the funnel. The paddle had almost completed its first turn and the ship lay still. Would it be able to move the ship forward? As the paddle gathered speed the ship slowly but surely began to move up river. Fulton sighed with relief. He turned and smiled to the cheering crowds for he knew, and they knew, that he had proved his critics wrong.


This paragraph is about


A the size of the crowds on the river bank


B the success of Fulton’s ship in France


C what Fulton’s critics said


Although Fulton was very distressed to find that so few people in England were interested in what he thought was a very exciting invention, he set sail for America determined to build a new steamship there. He made plans, bought the necessary materials and employed American workers. There were many difficulties and much hard work and delay but he pressed on with great enthusiasm, and by the summer of 1807 was proud to have succeeded in his work in America. The steamship Clermont was ready for sea trials.


This paragraph is about


A Fulton’s disappointment in England


B building the new ship Clermont in America


C the slow progress of Fulton’s work


Now try the following


1 If you had enough money would you go on a cruise in the Caribbean? Perhaps one day you will be one of the lucky ones.


As you sail among the islands your guide may suggest the boat should anchor near the shore. When he tells you to look down into the clear water at the coral below, you may gaze in wonder at a magnificently coloured fish. You will be looking at no ordinary fish but at the tropical flying fish. Suddenly it may burst through the surface and skim over the sea displaying its colourful wings.


4 Perhaps it is full of glee or it may, just in time, have seen the open fierce jaws of the barracuda. When full grown the barracuda is nearly two metres long. It lurks quietly around on the sea bed, and looks harmless until it shows its vicious teeth, a sight which frightens the flying fish and causes it to flee.


5 Perhaps a few fishermen are standing, armed with spears in a small boat nearby. Their patience seems endless but they are looking intently not at the flying fish but for a glimpse of the barracuda. It is popular with the islanders, indeed it is one of their favourite dishes. If it stays still on the sea bed, spears will dart through the water. When one has been caught the fishermen move on a short distance to look for another.


Which of the following is the main idea in the writer’s mind?


Par the beautiful flying fish


the boat at anchor


the clear tropical sea


Par the sea bed


the barracuda


the teeth


Par 4 the fishermen are armed


the fishermen are eager to catch the barracuda


the fishermen are patient


Ex. 8 � REVISION


Read all five paragraphs before you choose a title from the list given for any of them.


1. You will be able to recognise many different kinds of insects. Some of them you may like, but others may frighten you because they are liable to bite. Sometimes this can be serious because a biting insect may carry disease. If it happens to bite and suck the blood of a person suffering from some disease and then later on bites a healthy person, it injects some of the disease germs into his blood and so infects him with the disease. In this way diseases spread rapidly in some parts of the world.


. The mosquito is a biting insect. With its sharp beak, rather like a tiny hollow needle, it pierces your skin. It does not mean to harm you but to feed on your blood. In order to suck blood up through its minute tube, it injects some of its saliva to keep your blood from clotting in the tube. It is this saliva which causes the itch in your skin, but much more serious is the fact that it may contain disease germs with which you may be infected.


. Not all irritating insects actually bite us. Some of them sting. The bee and the wasp carry a sting at the tip of the tail. This has nothing to do with feeding but is used in attack, usually on a person who has been annoying them. Their sting is also like a hollow tube but it does not suck up blood. It pierces the skin and injects a poison which causes pain and discomfort. We would be well advised not to annoy bees and wasps.


4. There is one marked difference between wasps and bees. The sting of the wasp is sharp and smooth and, therefore, it can sting many times without harm to itself. But the sting of the bee is barbed and extremely difficult to pull out of the skin. Very often it is left behind. When the sting has been torn out, the bee suffers such severe injury that it dies. Normally, therefore, a bee can sting only once.


5. Insects are a very serious problem in tropical regions of the world. Large sums of money are spent there to destroy insects before they spread disease. We are fortunate in this country because few insects carry disease, even though they may often cause us a great deal of discomfort.


Here are five titles, one for each paragraph.


See if you can choose the correct title for each paragraph.


(a) Bees and wasps sting when annoyed.


(b) Tropical insects are more of a problem than British insects.


(c) Bees sting once, wasps many times.


(d) Mosquitoes may spread diseases as they bite.


(e) Biting insects often carry disease.


Ex. � REVISION


Can you suggest suitable titles for the following passages?


1 Things went pretty well for the rest of that day. It continued to rain and Sue decided on a kitchen party.


The games were mostly guessing rice and barley and sago while blindfolded by the feel of them, and drinking eggcups full of water with salt or sugar or vinegar in them, and saying what each was.


There was also tossing in a blanket but this did not amount to much as Sue and Bob could not manage a real toss and merely jiggled the occupants about or tipped them out on the floor. And there was making the round of the kitchen without touching the floor. Chairs, the table, the window ledge, an open cupboard (if you could get round the door), the fender and such things provided footholds. Sometimes the stretch from one spot to another was enormous and though Bob might manage it, the twins had to risk a spring. The whole party was a great success and the younger children quite forgot that Mother and Daddy had gone away.


(The Children who lived in a Barn - Eleanor Graham)


October, 1st.


Dear Daddy-Long-Legs,


I love College and I love you for sending me - I’m very, very happy, and so excited every moment of the time that I can scarcely sleep. You can’t imagine how different it is from the John Grier Home. I never dreamed there was such a place in the world. I’m feeling sorry for everybody who isn’t a girl and who can’t come here. I am sure the College you attended when you were a boy couldn’t have been so nice.


(Daddy-Long-Legs - Jean Webster)


The main thought in the writer’s mind is?


Ex. 10 - REVISION


Suggest a title for each paragraph


1. In the spring of 1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie faced many great difficulties. The morale of his army was low after the wearisome retreat from Derby and the frequent disagreements amongst the clansmen. The long cold winter made many long to go home and forget about war. Worst of all, the soldiers were short of food and the Prince had no money with which to pay them or buy supplies.


. He looked to France for assistance. King Louis expressed sympathy and friendship but these were of no immediate help. He did not send troops who could have aided the cause and been a match for Bonnie Prince Charlie’s enemies. But help was sent in the form of a large sum of money, perhaps £0 000, and for this Charles was very grateful.


. The journey of the sloop, Le Prince Charles, which carried the gold, was no pleasure trip. Captain Talbot and his crew were in a state of fear and alarm all the way from France lest an English ship should appear. A sloop would be no match for a man-of-war. All went well until they approached the Moray Firth. Captain Talbot beat a hasty retreat when he spotted British warships on guard. But it was too late. The Sheerness gave chase northwards, through the Pentland Firth.


4. Realising he could not outrun the Sheerness, Captain Talbot tried a more cunning plan. With the approach of evening he steered into the Kyle of Tongue hoping that the warship would not follow. The Sheerness kept coming so Le Prince Charles was deliberately run ashore to ensure that the warship could not come alongside to take the gold since it could sail only in deeper waters.


5. As darkness fell the crew decided they must speedily abandon ship and get ashore. Le Prince Charles might well have been damaged as she grounded. This would have been nothing compared to the destruction that the guns of the Sheerness began to inflict on her from long range. The sounds of gun-fire might well attract Charlie’s enemies from the surrounding areas. Not only had each man to get ashore but he had to take a quantity of gold with him.


6. Their luck on landing was remarkable. They approached the house of William Mackay of Melness to discover he was strong supporter of their side and he welcomed them. In his house, enjoying the warmth of the fire and the refreshing food he provided, they rested thankful for their escape from the death that had seemed so near. In the early hours of the morning William Mackay sold them two horses to carry their money and sent his son to guide them to their Prince near Inverness.


7. But their high spirits did not last long. An enemy supporter, Lord Reay, who lived on the other side of the Kyle, sent armed men to delay their progress. While his snipers held up the Jacobites, word was sent for other government supporters to come and capture the men and the gold. Very soon all avenues of escape were blocked. In despair Captain Talbot and his men broke open the boxes and threw the gold pieces into Loch Hakon or in the heather and then surrendered.


8. What of the gold? Is it still lying there in the silt at the bottom of the loch?


TOPIC 4 - OMISSIONS


A REPETITION


Read the sentence below


Regular exercise does you good and makes you feel better. Why not go jogging or running at the beginning of the day in the early morning?


Look at the amount of repetition


Does you good makes you feel better


Jogging running


At the beginning of the day in the early morning


A summary of the sentence with the repetitions omitted would look like this


Regular exercise does you good. Why not go jogging in the early morning?


Ex. 11 -- Read the passage and pick out any expressions which you feel mean almost or exactly the same as other expressions.


Keeping one self slim and trim is a problem in Singapore, a country which offers such tasty and delicious food.





A compromise must be made between intake (what you take in) and output (what you put out). You can, if it is possible, reduce and cut down on a little of one’s intake (food and drink) regularly every day. However, to go without food and starve oneself in order to look slim and not fat is both unwise and foolish.


The best possible way perhaps is to eat how you would usually eat normally but then to work harder to use up the extra calories which are left over.





It is certainly not necessary or obligatory to stop eating and not take food at all. Neither does one have to gorge or stuff oneself. As has been said before, a compromise must be made between intake and output. You will have to be strict with yourself and enforce self-discipline or alternatively you may, in twelve or a dozen years from the present day, be twice your present weight now.


B EXAMPLES


In reading a passage, examples may be included to support statements. As a general rule, these examples can be omitted when you write a summary.


Look at the following passage and note the use of examples


Supermarkets have the advantage of being able to stock large quantities of a wide variety of imported items such as tinned fish, meat and vegetables. Similarly food which needs to be kept frozen or cool, including fresh meat, fish, vegetables, pastries, cakes, butter and fresh milk can be kept in large refrigerators. However, if you wish to buy fresh vegetables, for example kai lan, chye sim, spinach and kang kong, the local market is probably far better.


You can easily recognise when examples are being given because they are often introduced by words such as (and these are examples!) such as, for example, including, like, for instance, etc. Omit these examples when writing a summary. This only applies, however, if the examples given form a list. Sometimes example words may introduce long anecdotes.


Example Mr Lin is a very strange man. One day, for example …


In this case, the rest of the story may be very important to the understanding of the passage as a whole so do not omit this paragraph. In other words, omit examples in a list but not whole stories given as illustrations.


Ex. 1 -- The sentences in the paragraphs below have been written in the wrong order. Rewrite the passage in the correct order and omit all unnecessary examples.


1 After all, most human beings would much prefer to engage in leisure activities such as swimming, watching television or going to the cinema. Most students have mixed feelings about going to school. However, too much leisure becomes boring.





Other subjects such as geography and science can be made interesting because they often relate to concrete things in the environment. P. E. can be enjoyable since it includes many leisure activities, for example, football, running and badminton. At school, many teachers try to incorporate enjoyment into work. In some subjects, for instance maths and history, this is often difficult because the concepts and facts may seem remote.





On the other hand, if the pupils are expected only to sit passively (doing listening and reading, for example), then boredom may set in. The English lesson can either be interesting or not interesting. If the lesson contains a variety of activities like language games and problem-solving exercises, it can be very enjoyable.


Omit all unnecessary examples from the following sentences


Powell commissioned four boats from the Bagley Boat Yard in Chicago and designed them himself, adding watertight compartments to hold barometers, chronometers, thermometers, sextants, compasses and food. (FMSS 7 MYE S4)


Old Rezakhan remembered clearly his own journey to Hormuz over the Sarvizan Pass with a large train of 00 mules, camels and horses, ladened with grapes, pistachios, almonds, carpets and cotton goods. (FMSS 6 MYE S4)


4 Man is a highly unique creature, migrating and travelling to every part of the world. In this we are not unique. Migratory birds regularly navigate over amazing distances; whales and sharks roam the oceans; salmon, eels and other fish cross the seas in their breeding cycles; wildebeest, caribou and other animals make group migrations, as do locusts and other plague insects. (FMSS 6 Prelim)


5 How did he deal with a farmer’s blaming a withered potato crop or sick cattle on a neighbour’s evil eye, I asked Father Joseph Kearney at dinner one evening. Or such practices, recorded in the west of Ireland, as making a curse while turning a cursing stone against the sun. (FMSS 7 Prelim)


6 The hunter’s rewards are only personal trophies to remind him of the successful hunt, and are decaying ones at that, which will soon lose their initial freshness whiskers fall out, the coat’s shine disappears and the antlers soon resemble burnt twigs. (‘O’ Level 88)


C INTENSIFIERS


Intensifiers are used to modify describing words or adjectives and emphasise what is being described. Some examples of intensifiers are absolutely, totally, completely, exceedingly, very, and so on. These can be omitted in a summary because they do not add very much to the information already presented.


Ex. 1 -- Identify the intensifiers in the following extracts and cross them out


1 The Ramsays were perfectly respectable people and there was every reason to suppose that Tom Ramsay would have a useful and honourable career.


(FMSS FE)


The writer told of the French ’Their medical arrangements are extremely good; they have the help of the Sisters of Charity who have accompanied the expedition; these are excellent nurses.’ (FMSS MYE)


They were past mid-stream when the swollen carcass of a kangaroo was swept towards them. He tried to avoid it but it crashed against the mare’s shoulder. She swung away in panic; he shouted angrily and she suddenly turned completely over. Man and horse were under water fighting for life. (‘O’ Level Jun 8)


D UNNECESSARY DETAILS


When writing a summary, it is important to include the main points made in a passage but not the original details. Look at this paragraph and note the information which we can omit in a summary.


One of the most pleasant spots in Singapore is the Portsdown Road swimming-pool which is about eight kilometres from the city far from Queenstown. The pool is situated in beautiful grounds, containing bougainvillea, frangipani and fan palms. There is also a restaurant nearby serving both Western and Chinese food. Set lunches are also served there.


In a summary, we would simply rewrite this as


One of the most pleasant spots in Singapore is the Portsdown Road swimming-pool. The pool is situated in beautiful grounds (and) there is also a restaurant nearby.


Ex. 14 -- Now rewrite the passages below giving the essential facts but omitting unnecessary details.


1 The appearance of the plain was different in what was called a ‘thistle year’. The giant thistles, which usually grew in isolated patches, suddenly sprang up everywhere, and for a season covered most of the land. In these luxuriant years the plants grew as thickly as rushes, and were taller than usual, attaining a height of about three metres. The wonder was to see plants which throw out such vast leaves producing stems so close together as to be virtually touching. Standing among the thistles in the growing season one could almost hear them growing, as the huge leaves freed themselves with a jerk from a cramped position, producing a crackling sound. (Dec 4)


Ans


Not long afterwards, the chief engineer, in fact the only engineer, abandoned his post and came to the bridge to dry out. As he passed through the gate, there was a rush of passengers behind him, led by a voluble character who insisted on addressing the other passengers in French, the second language of the country. It took minutes of detailed and elegant argument, he speaking in French, the officers in English, before he agreed to withdraw. While this was taking place, the gate remained ajar, so firmly wedged in the helmsman’s back that he could hardly manage the wheel. (Dec )


Ans


Soon the driver abandoned the elephant for a gossip and a smoke, leaving the animal to go on its way for a mile or more. The elephant turned into the jungle, where he began to rend and tear the trees, and going to a mud-hole he drew what water there was out of it, and squirted it with a loud noise over himself and his riders, soaking my clothes with it. When he turned back to the road again, he several times stopped and seemed to stand on his head by stiffening his trunk and leaning upon it, and when I hit him with my umbrella he uttered the loudest roar I ever heard. My Malay fellow-rider jumped off and ran back for the driver, at which the baskets both came down on my side of the elephant. I hung on with difficulty, wondering what other possible problems could occur, always expecting that the beast, which was flourishing his trunk, would lift me off with it and deposit me in a mud-hole. (Jun )


Ans


4 Easter Island is the most remote inhabited place in the entire world. No other is further away in any direction from the next nearest habitation. Pitcairn Island lies some 00 kilometres to its west, and the South American coast some 700 kilometres to its east. All the rest is water. Not surprisingly, the island is difficult to get to. Indeed, until an airport was made in the 160s, it was all but impossible, because the only connection with the rest of the world was a ship which visited the island once a year. There is now something called an hotel on the island. Otherwise, many of the islanders, who number about 000, are keen to put up visitors there is always a crowd at the airport to meet incoming planes and offer rooms and meals. (Dec )


Ans


5 The bicycle, meaning literally ‘two wheels’, is rapidly being used in the West, and especially in Britain and the United States, as an alternative to the petrol-driven motor-car.


Because of the increase in the price of oil, which has probably doubled in the last eight years, many people both young and old have turned to the older but cheaper mode of transport, the bicycle.


There have been as a result many interesting side-effects from this switch to the bicycle


a cyclists have saved money, especially from no longer having to pay for car services, repairs, fuel costs and motor tax plus insurance;


b they have become fitter through increased vascular-cardiac exercise;


c air pollution in the city, which is usually attributed to fumes from car exhausts, has been reduced.


In Britain, in spite of the weather which is frequently cold, windy and rainy (not the most suitable conditions!), more and more cyclists are to be found since travelling by bus and train is very expensive. A bus journey equivalent to the distance from Toa Payoh to the city can cost the equivalent of between Singapore $7 and $8.





Ans


E COMPARISONS


Ex. 15 -- Identify the comparisons in the following passages and rewrite the passages without them.


1 The two Englishmen on camels met each other in the desert between Jerusalem and Cairo. Because they had not been introduced, they passed each other quite distantly as if they had passed in Pall Mall. (FMSS MYE)


One went up a narrow lane of cactus, then along a rutted, dusty bullock-cart track, with bamboos as tall as flagstaff growing densely on either side.


(FMSS 86 Prelim)


A bamboo the thickness of a man’s wrist had fallen and hung across the path.


(FMSS 86 Prelim)


4 Where was the carousing? In County Clare, I heard that some wakes went on for a week. Here was no drinking, no singing, no game of love to symbolise procreation to offset death. (FMSS 7 Prelim)


5 The others stood looking on with serious bored faces, like men in church.


(FMSS 7 Prelim)


F IDIOMS


Idioms are figures of speech. Some examples of idioms are similes and metaphors. Similes are used when the writer wants to compare things that possess some similar quality. You can identify similes because they usually come in the form of ‘as …. as’ or ‘like …’. While in similes, the writer says that something is like something else, in metaphors, he says that something is something else. Look at the examples given below. You should omit similes and metaphors in your summary and get to the main point of the description.


Heart in mouth, I approached the tent. (idiom)


Terrified, I approached the tent.


The evidence was as clear as crystal. (simile)


The evidence was clear.


He died in the flower of youth. (metaphor)


He died young.


Ex. 16 -- Identify the idiomatic expressions in the following passages and omit them if they are unnecessary or change them into simple language.


1 When the public houses opened at noon the stories of Kenneth Horsfall’s death spread like wildfire and as they closed at the end of the lunch period violence was close. (FMSS 87 Prelim)


My father, who has taken to buses like a fish to water, was once a motorcycle man. (FMSS MYE)


I am not a doctor, far less a good one, and all I could tell about the man behind the desk was that he had been dead long enough for rigor mortis to set in but not long enough for it to wear off. He was stiff as a man frozen to death in a Siberian winter.


TOPIC 5 - REDUCTION


A PARAPHRASING


In this unit we are going to deal with how to reduce in length what needs to be retained. Imagine that we have already made all the necessary omissions and our summary looks like this. Note what we can reduce in the passage.


Mr Li was a man of advancing years but he still considered himself to be very active. As a rule, he took considerable pains to avoid going to lifts and instead walked all the way up the steps to his flat which was situated on the fifth floor. One day, however, he decided to take advantage of the lift. Once he had made his way inside the lift, a man at least forty years his junior dashed towards him clutching in his hands a knife which looked very dangerous indeed.


Now let’s see how we can reduce the passage in length.


Mr Li was a man of advancing years but still considered himself to be very active á Mr Li was an old but very active man





As a rule, he took considerable pains to avoid going in lifts á He usually tried hard to avoid going in lifts





and instead walked all the way up to his flat which was situated on the fifth floor á and instead walked up the steps to his fifth-floor flat





One day, however, he decided to take advantage of the lift á One day, however, he decided to use the lift





Once he had made his way into the lift, a man at least forty years his junior dashed towards him á Once inside, a young man dashed towards him





Clutching in his hands a knife which looked very dangerous indeed á clutching a dangerous-looking knife (clutching a knife / knife-wielding man)


We have managed to reduce the original summary from about 0 words to a much shorter summary containing only 5 words.


Ex. 17 -- Rewrite the sentences below as economically as possible


a Henry is one of those people who not only find it difficult to resist yawning after only a few minutes concentration but also whose attention is easily diverted by the slightest distraction.


b Do you think I could offer you a cup of some thirst-quenching beverage such as tea, coffee or milk?


c This is to inform you that with regard to your offer of employment made to me in the letter which I received today my answer is in the affirmative.


d One of the favourite occupations in which many young Malay youths like to indulge in their spare time is the spinning of wooden tops.


e At Sound Incorporated’s main branch in Orchard Towers, there is going to be for the next seven days a selling off of cassette decks, turntables, amplifiers and loudspeakers at discount prices.


f It would be much more to the advantage of the Chinese population living in Singapore if they ceased their habit of conversing with each other in dialect and instead switched to communicating with each other in Mandarin.


g Visitors to my house are kindly requested to refrain from lighting up in my presence all forms of tobacco such as cigarettes and cigars.


h Life would be much more pleasant if people such as yourselves realised the benefit of treating one another with the greatest politeness and civility.


i The speaker expressed his heartfelt gratitude to the principal for extending an invitation for him to visit the school and deliver an address on the subject of ‘Brevity’.


j ‘Interlink’ is not only a series of books which generates a lot of interest to students in Singapore secondary schools but it also contains some very amusing titbits.


See if you can reduce the length of the passage below to approximately half its present length.


There once lived a lady who was called Celia and who was known throughout the land for her considerable beauty. Unfortunately, she was also of a mean and selfish disposition since her parents had always allowed her to have her own way when she was a little girl.


Many young men with faithfulness in their hearts and honour in their swords had visited her to seek her fair hand in marriage. However, on each and every occasion she had set them a task to perform which was impossibly difficult to do, saying that she would not give her consent to their offer of marriage until the task had been performed successfully.


One night, however, a man whose appearance was extremely ugly made his way into the room where Celia slept. While she slumbered in a sleep as deep as any pond, this man, whose face resembled that of a toad, stood over the place where she lay and whispered words of great magical significance before taking his leave with great stealth.


As the light of dawn crept into the bedroom, Celia awoke. She got out of bed and looked at the mirror. Seeing her own face, she let out a scream which rang throughout the whole house. Her face was not as it had been before but was now of an extremely ugly appearance resembling that of a toad.


Ans


B COMPOUND ADJECTIVES


Compound adjectives, or double-barrelled adjectives abound in English. They are adjectival expressions made up of two (or sometimes more) words, usually linked by hyphens. Some examples are ‘a self-centred person’, ‘a bullet-proof vest’ and ‘a dark-haired boy’. Compound adjectives make for more concise writing and knowing how to form them can be useful when you write summaries. A hyphenated word is considered one word, so you condense your writing when you use compound adjectives. However, you should always remember to check if it is necessary to include these adjectives in your summary.


It might be useful to bear in mind the following when forming compound adjectives


a the ‘ly’ form is usually avoided new-found, clean-shaven, close-fitting, etc. instead of newly-found, cleanly-shaven and closely-fitting.


b even after a ‘plural’ number, the second element remains in the singular form a three-storey house, a ten-dollar bill, an eleven-man team, etc.


c a noun describing a colour is placed in front of the colour itself lime-green plant, pearl-grey dress, sky-blue ceiling, etc.


d parts of the body and some other nouns add an ‘ed’ to form the second part of double-barrelled combinations a brown-eyed girl, a thick-skinned man, a loud-mouthed fool, etc.


Ex. 18 -- Read the following passages and form compound adjectives where possible.


1 We met no woman with red hair on the way, no person with eyes that are crossed, saw no black snail first thing that morning. (FMSS 7 Prelim)


I watched my two boatmen fix holes in the curragh’s canvas bottom, which was covered with black tar, melting the tar with an open flame and pressing over the mossy rocks, and upending it sunwise in the surf. (FMSS 7 Prelim)


C PHRASES AND CLAUSES


Phrases and clauses can be condensed to help save words in a summary. Change phrases into single words wherever possible


He approached the problem in a careful manner . (phrase)


He approached the problem carefully.


Change clauses into phrases wherever possible


When the visitors arrived, they were warmly welcomed. (clause)


On arrival, the visitors were warmly welcomed. (phrase)


Ex. 1 -- Condense the phrases and clauses in the following sentences wherever possible. Omit unnecessary details as well.


1 As soon as it caught sight of the tethered goat, the tiger lay flat on the earth.


(FMSS 000 S MYE)


He understood then, why they were careless of the noise they made. He was in the one spot they would not expect him to be � within a stone’s throw of their own camp. (FMSS)


He had to be on the look-out for farms which lay on his route and blow a horn to warn the farmer of his approach, so that the farmer would have ample time to prepare. Imagine the confusion if the farmer’s own cattle were to get mixed up with the travelling herd! Many hours would be spent in sorting them out and quarrels would break out over disputed ownership. (Nov 8)


D USING SYNONYMS & PARAPHRASING


Good writers do not repeat vocabulary, hence, in their writing, they often use synonyms so as not to sound repetitive. In writing your summary, you should try to use synonyms for the words in the passage. This is necessary if you want to score marks for the language component of the summary. You should try to paraphrase the information or rephrase them in your own words.


Read the example below to see how synonyms can be used and how to paraphrase.


experts exact was undiscovered


Even among scholars, the precise location of Pompeii remained unknown,


Mainly covered


primarily because a thick flow of molten rock had poured over the area from eruptions


subsequent eruptions


in later years.


Ex. 0 -- Now, try to replace words and phrases from the original text with your own.


1 The layers of volcanic ash had entirely altered the shape of the coast.


Also, when the digging to uncover the ruins began in the eighteenth century, the debris from these excavations had been left in scattered heaps around the site, further obscuring it.


The early excavators had acted purely for the sake of plunder; they made no genuine effort to investigate the past.


(‘O’ Level 6)


4 Before the advent of the cinema and television, city-dwellers rarely encountered wild animals in any form except in zoos.


5 Tourist pollution is considered the main cause in the dramatic decline of the numbers of certain predatory animals like the cheetah and leopard.


(‘O’ Level 7)


F INDIRECT SPEECH


In writing a summary, you are actually giving an account of the information presented in the passage. In a sense, you are retelling what you understand of the passage. All information in quotations or direct speech, therefore, has to be converted into indirect speech. You need to remember the rules that apply to these conversions. Remember too, to condense the information contained within the quotation. You should not rewrite every word in the quotation.


Read the example below and then try the exercise.


‘Now, now!’ urged Louisa Mebbin with some excitement, ‘if he doesn’t touch the goat we needn’t pay for it.’


Ans Louisa Mebbin urged her to shoot immediately for if the goat is unharmed, they need not pay for it.


Ex. 1


1 Kenneth Horsfall’s father jumped onto a garden wall and said to the violent mob ’It is me that is suffering. It is me that has to go to my son’s funeral. I don’t want to see anything like this and my son would not have liked it either.’ (FMSS 87 Prelim)


The old lady at last had a lucid moment and saw the stranger sitting beside her. ‘Who’s this?’ she demanded of her hovering daughter. The girl leaned over the bed. ‘It’s all right Mother,’ said the daughter distinctly. ‘It’s only a police-station gentleman. He hasn’t come to make any trouble. He just wants to hear about the watch.’ The old lady gave the stranger a sharp clear look and uttered not another word; she just leaned back on the pillow, closed her lips and eyes, folded her hands and died. (FMSS 1 Prelim)


G SYNTHESIS OF SENTENCES


In a summary, you need to combine sentences if there is a logical relationship between them. This will help you cut down on the number of words you use in the summary. Read the example below.


The villagers faced incredible hardships. Once, they were forced to sell the very animals they needed for their fields.


Facing incredible hardships, the villagers were forced to sell the very animals they needed for their fields.


Incredible hardships forced the villagers to sell …


In this instance, there is a cause-effect relationship between the first and the second sentence.


Ex. -- Try to identify such logical relationships between the sentences in the exercise before you combine them.


1 We were daily bombarded by the sights and sounds of advertising. It was little wonder then that we have become confused in our values and tastes.


What I now discovered was that there are hundreds of statues they are all over the island. The greatest concentration of the figures is near the eastern tip. Here lies the quarry from which the stone was taken. (‘O’ Level )


Tourist pollution is considered the main cause in the dramatic decline of the numbers of certain predatory animals like the cheetah and leopard. In desperation, some of these animals have abandoned their natural behaviour patterns and concentrate on nocturnal hunting to avoid the swarm of trucks, zebra-striped vans and other vehicles that bump and lurch through the game parks from the first light. (Nov 7)


4 When further messages about icebergs came in from the ship Californian, the young radio operator on Titanic ignored them. Although he was dedicated to his profession, he did not have that degree of judgement which comes from years of experience. (Nov )


Ex. � REVISION


Try summarising these passages taken from GCE ‘O’ Level papers


1 At first light, my companions were awake, anxious to push on before the air grew unbearably hot. We plodded alongside the camels in silence, while the jagged crusts of sand stung and cut our feet. Then more and even bigger hills of sand began to stretch in front of us like a huge mountain range. One vast dune, well over 00 metres high, with a steep, almost sheer face, blocked our path. Surely this meant the end of our journey across the Empty Quarter. (Jun 7)


Ans


After all this abuse of the giant thistle, it may sound odd to say that a ‘thistle year’ was a blessing in some ways. Admittedly, it was an anxious year on account of the risk of fire, and a season of great apprehension, too, when reports of robberies and other violent crimes were widespread. It was especially worrying for the wives of the gauchos who were left so much alone in their low-roofed mud houses, shut in by dense, prickly growth. But a ‘thistle year’ was also called a fat year, since the animals -- cattle, horses, sheep and even pigs -- gorged themselves on the huge leaves and soft, sweetish-tasting stems, and were in excellent condition. The only drawbacks were that the riding-horses lost strength as they gained in fat, and milk did not taste nice. (Dec 4)


Ans


Steam also revolutionised travel on land. Steam-powered locomotives began to haul their loads of freight and passengers from city to city, over a network of railways that quickly embraced one country after another. As the speed and comfort of railway travel developed, people found travel becoming an everyday part of their lives. In fact, the whole shape of society was beginning to change as travel became cheaper and easier. People left their simple life on the land and moved to work in the new cities and industries that were springing up, and to enjoy a more prosperous existence. The railways had made it all possible. (Jun 4)


Ans


4 And finally, try summarising this amusing story


A very funny story arises from the time when President Glick ruled Utopia. In 11, Glick, a prominent member of the Utopian army, seized power in a military coup.


Glick’s first step as the second president of Utopia was to establish law and order not only in the capital, Prefectia, but also in remoter districts such as Kane, and Fort Abel. Therefore, road blocks -- three oil drums manned by young privates armed with machine guns -- were set up in the rural countryside areas.


A teacher, Tom Bewley aged 8 years, who was attached to a government secondary school, used to pass through one of these road blocks twice a day, once in the morning and once in the afternoon. One day, after he had come to a halt by the road block, two young soldiers aged about seventeen and eighteen, told him to get out of his car and step outside. They then told him in a matter-of-fact tone to open the bonnet of the car. The officers peered inside and look around. They then instructed Mr Bewley, the teacher, to take off his boots.


This he did he took off his boots. Completely bewildered and almost at a complete loss for words, Mr Bewley asked them why they wanted him to take off his boots. The young men shrugged their shoulders, indicating they were not sure. ‘We don’t know,’ said one in a voice which sounded rather trembling. ‘We’ve been given orders by our superior officers to search all car bonnets and boots’.





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