Thursday, June 30, 2011

lord of the flies

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“What is man without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, man would die from loneliness of spirit. For whatever happens to the beasts happens to man. All things are connected…” �Unknown. What is a man without the beast that lives within? As we compare this quote to the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, we receive the understanding that the so called “beast” that lived on the island was not that of reality, but more so the beast that lived inside the boys themselves. The beast plays the most significant role in the novel because it is represented in various forms and is portrayed differently by all the characters. The beast represents evil and the lack of civilization. There is a physical beast or a physical representation of the inner beast within, that not everyone is gifted enough to find out for themselves who or what this beast really is.


The beast representing evil is the main focus of the novel. The boys are scared of something on the island but they don’t know what it is that they fear. “The fear of the unknown can be a powerful force, which can turn you to either insight or hysteria.” This quote applies to the boys’ reaction on the unknown creature that “lurks” the island. Darkness symbolizes evil and the beast only exists at night. Daylight brings safety to the island but at night in the dark, not even a group of young boys can feel safe together. There are three characters that can be symbolic to the evil beast and they are Simon, a shy spiritual and gentle boy, Jack, the jealous hunter who is very hot tempered, and the parachutist, dead from war. Simon does come in contact with the physical beast, the Lord of the Flies itself, a pig’s head on a stick covered with a thick black halo of flies, but never receives the opportunity to share his experience with the others. Simon is a martyr and it is actually a good thing because since he did not succeed in sharing his information about the beast with the others, they now have to find out for themselves what it is they fear. One has a better understanding of something once he actually comes in contact with it. The parachutist is a figure of war that has been dropped on the mountaintop. Right above them, “something like a great ape was sitting asleep with its head between its knees. The creature lifted its head, holding toward them the ruin of a face.” 140. This was actually the outline of the dead body that has not decayed because it is wrapped in a tarp that is protecting and preserving it. The beast also represents evil in the character Jack. Jack’s main priority is to hunt and kill which carries out his evil intentions.


The lack of civilization is tremendous throughout the novel because as the boys become accustomed to the island, they start losing the rules, and an island with no rules is chaos. The boys start turning into savages and rip apart whatever they can get their hands on, including fellow savages and friends. They can’t control their horrid actions because evilness has taken over their sense of mind. The only thing the boys think about all day long is how “to get a handful of that brown, vulnerable flesh. The desire to squeeze and hurt was over-mastering.” 10. They also acted uncivilized when they killed the female pig. They acted in such a vicious manner that the killing of the pig can be compared to a rape. Bloodshed has covered the island for the boys have fallen into an out of control bloodlust.


Every person that lives and walks the earth has some sort of beast or evil creature dwelling inside of him or her. This is examined the best in Simon, the sacrificial scapegoat. Simon is a very secretive person and doesn’t like to share his inner emotions with others. He does actually come in contact with the beast itself and he has a confrontation where the beast metaphorically speaks to him. On top of him fearing the beast, he is absolutely terrified of Jack. Jack’s inner beast within is just dying to escape to terrorize the island. Jack’s personality is similar to that of an animal; barbaric. He expresses these actions when the boys play the game of killing Robert. They act with a cannibalistic behavior and if regret wasn’t an issue, they would have gone along and actually killed him. “The vivid horror of this, so possible and so nakedly terrifying, held them all silent.” . Ralph is being influenced by Jack and is being drawn into the bloodlust that has taken over the island. He longs for the comfort of his home and to rid himself of the fears and dangers of the island. There is a famous quote that can illustrate this situation. “There is nothing to fear but fear itself.” �Anon. This can be defined as the mysterious fear that hovers over the island.


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The physical representation of the beast is not really clear because each child has a different imagination and pictures life in his or her own personal way. One littlun’ is scared of a “beastie” that he hears at night. “And I was frightened and started to call out for Ralph and then I saw something moving among the trees, something big and horrid.” . It is not known where this beast comes from or if it really exists. There is an imaginary beast that is the result of all the illusions and mirages that occur all over the island. The beast from water can be depicted as a scary creature that swims or creeps through the depths of the ocean. No one has actually met this physical beast either. The only proof that a real physical beast exists is the pig’s head on the stick that Simon converses with.


Why is the concept of the beast significant? Throughout the novel there are many examples of the multiple explanations and personalities of the beast. The beast is portrayed as the inner beast within, as a physical beast, and as a beast representing evil. All this leads up to the lack of civilization and how the boys turn into savages and murderers. This novel could not have been put together better.





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Nicotine is an addictive drug.

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Nicotine is an addictive drug, which when inhaled, smoke reaches the brain faster than drugs that enter the body intravenously. Smokers become physically addicted to nicotine. Smoking causes health problems, changes a person’s physical appearance and creates financial burdens. People should not smoke cigarettes.


The first reason not to smoke is health reasons. Smoking causes lung cancer. Lung cancer is responsible for thousands of deaths each year in America. Smoking also causes emphysema. Emphysema is a degenerative disease that usually develops after many years of inhaling cigarette smoke. This circumstance makes it hard for a person to breath. Smoking is also a major factor in heart attacks. The nicotine in a cigarette makes the body release adrenaline. Adrenaline causes the blood vessels to constrict and speeds a smoker’s heart rate. This process leads to heart attacks and strokes.


Another reason to avoid smoking is the changes in physical appearance. Research has shown that cigarette smoking interferes with the body’s ability to renew skin; therefore smoking causes premature wrinkles, especially around the eyes and the lips. Smoking cigarettes causes stains on the teeth. The tar in cigarettes turns the teeth to an unsightly brown color. This condition makes a person unattractive. Another physical appearance that changes is hair. Men who smoke are twice as likely to go bald as men who do not smoke. Smoking also changes the hair color to gray for many men and women.


The final reason not to smoke is because of the money that is spent buying them. The money could be spent on paying household bills such as, electric bills, phone bills, rent or groceries. If a smoker cannot pay his or her bills because they spent the bill money o n cigarettes, it affects everyone in the household. Children in the house do not get the new clothing they want in order to keep up with the latest styles as a result of their parents buying cigarettes. With the money that is spent purchasing packs of cigarettes, one could take a nice vacation with their family. Smoking creates more medical expenses; therefore, an abundance of cash has to be paid out to medical doctors, insurance companies and pharmacies in order for the smoker to receive the care that is needed.


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In conclusion, people should not smoke cigarettes because of the risk of lung cancer, emphysema and heart disease. Smoking tends to take away years from a person’s life. Money should be spent on buying new clothes for the children or paying household bills, instead of paying thousands of dollars on cigarettes. A smoker will spend up to $,500 a year buying cigarettes and paraphernalia.





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Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Remeber the Titans

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Remember The Titans is a wonderful movie that portrays the importance of teamwork. This movie is not just about a football team but the people who make up the team. They come together as a team to show how people so different can be so similar. The team sets an example for a town and opens a lot of eyes to a new era. There were some main characters that played very important roles when it comes to bringing the team together. Julius and Gary are two of the strongest characters in this movie. They are very dominant leaders that the rest of the team members look up to. Blue, Louie and Rev also set an example for other team members. They acted a lot like mediators with good attitudes about the integration of black and white. All team members also respected both of the coaches by the end of the movie. Organizational communication plays a very important part in this movie. There is a lot of downward communication with some upward communication. Peer interaction and peer networks are also present in this movie. These organizational communication concepts will be mentioned in greater detail later on in this paper.


In 171 a Virginia high school integrated. This integration process caused many problems among students and their parents. It was the beginning of a new school year which means football is starting. With football being the first sport of the season, the success of this team means a great deal to the community. Coach Boone comes to Virginia to become a new football coach. White citizens are very concerned and black citizens show their support. The school board wants Herman Boone to be the new head football coach. He does not want to accept this job solely on the color of his skin. Herman accepts this job maybe to show how successful he can be. Former white football players do not want to play for a black coach.


There is one new white player that does not care who he plays for he just wants to play football. Louie is a strong character in this movie. He was the first white team member to show that he does not care about race. This meant a lot to both black and white team members. Most of the white players looked down on him and it seamed like most of the black players looked at him as a friend. At this same time it opened both sides eyes up just a little for the very first time.


The two strongest characters in this movie are Gary and Julius. They are leaders for the whole team. Julius and Gary started off on the wrong foot but eventually they became powerful influences for everyone, even the coaches. They act as liaisons in this movie. Gary is not black and Julius is not white but they link both white and black together. They became good friends throughout the movie, which helped other team members to realize that blacks and whites can get along. They were both very strong leaders for all of the players to look up to. Julius and Gary also showed some horizontal communication flow between each other. They communicated to each other even though it sometimes was competitive. They had their first real conversation during camp about teamwork and each other as individuals, this showed some good communication but also at the same time it was a very competitive conversation.


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Coach Boone and Coach Yoast were also very dominant characters in this movie. Coach Boone was a very out spoken person. He wanted things to get done his way and if they were not there was always consequences that followed. Coach Yoast was a more laid back coach than Coach Boone. Team members felt like they could talk to him more as a person rather than a coach. Coach Boone did a lot of downward communication toward his team members and sometimes even to Coach Yoast. Downward communication is when a person above another tells someone beneath them what to do and how to do it. Coach Boone did this throughout the whole movie. There are sometimes problems with downward communication. The person being talked down to sometimes does not want to listen or gets overloaded with information. A good example of this is when Coach Boone takes Petey out of the game and yells at him and tells him to sit on the bench. Petey gets frustrated and tells Coach Yaost about it. Petey claims that he can not play for Coach Boone when he is yelling at him all the time. Petey got overwhelmed with all of the yelling that it was affecting the way he played football.


Remember The Titans is a movie about people learning to care about one another. It is about looking past the color of a person’s skin to see a great personality. All of these characters played important parts to bring together a community. A football team opened a lot of people’s eyes and mind to realize that the color of a person’s skin does not matter. All of these characters represented different parts of organizational communication. Julius and Gary were strong leaders not only of a football team but also a whole school and a town. Coach Boone and Coach Yoast also represented powerful leaders. They grew together as friends on and off the football field. The communities looked up to these people and made them want to be something that they were not.





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The Federal Reserve Bank

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The Federal Reserve Bank (Fed) was created to reduce the risk of a repeat of the financial panics that occurred in the United States before its creation in 11. The official objective of the Fed is to ensure the financial strength and stability of the nation’s banking system. The Fed regulates and examines the nation’s depository institutions to reach its objective. Also, it serves as a central bank that cashes checks drawn on the Treasury Bank, places currency into circulation and initiates fund transfers between depository institutions. The Fed splits the country into twelve districts, each of which is served by a separate district office of the Fed.


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The New York Federal Reserve Bank (FRBNY), employing over three-thousand people, serves all of the state of New York, northern New Jersey, a part of Connecticut, and all of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. While geographically serving the smallest area compared to most other Fed banks, FRBNY processes the most assets and has the largest volume of activity of any of the banks.


In addition to its main office, the FRBNY also has a branch office in Buffalo, and two regional offices one in Utica, NY and one in East Rutherford, NJ. Both regional offices are charged with handling check clearing for their respective geographical areas. Between the two offices, they process 5.6 million checks per day. When a check is presented for deposit at a depository institution, the bank deposits the check usually at its regional Fed office or local branch.


FRBNY is the largest user of two types of electronic funds transfer payment systems (EFT). One system, Fedwire, transfers large payments between Fed offices, depository institutions and government agencies. Last year, the Fedwire system transferred $1.5 trillion per day in funds and $760 billion in securities, with the vast majority of those transactions originating from the New York Fed. The other transfer payment system is called Automated Clearing House (ACH) and is used to reduce the use of paper checks. These systems are typically used for automatically paying bills, direct deposit of payroll and Social Security checks and other routine payments. In 1, ACH processed 4.8 billion transactions worth $14 trillion. Of that, the New York Fed processed $ trillion.


Located five stories below street level at the FRBNY, there exists $75 billion dollars worth of gold and hundreds of billions of dollars more in securities. The vault at the FRBNY contains the largest concentration of gold in the world, and amounts to one-quarter of the world’s gold supply. It is also the only Fed bank that is permitted to have gold in its possession.


The New York Federal Reserve Bank is distinct from the other reserve banks in that it is the only bank that intervenes in foreign exchange (FX) markets. While it is rare that the Fed intervenes, it is done to counter disorderly international market conditions. In the last seven years, the bank has only intervened twice. The role that the New York bank plays is that it is responsible for actually executing the FX interventions.


Also making the New York bank distinct is that it conducts open market operations. To reach its objectives of monetary policy, it buys and sells government securities in the open or “secondary” market. This adjusts the level of reserves that the bank holds, so that the Fed can either help or hold back the current shift of funds in the market. For the short-term, this helps the interest rate and the monetary supply.


The New York Federal Reserve Bank acts on behalf of the central Fed to provide services to over 00 foreign banks, central governments and international official economic institutions. Among these services is the cashing of checks drawn on US dollars in foreign countries. Since the foreign banks have accounts at the Fed, the New York Fed credits the accounts of the foreign banks for the amount of the check. The New York Fed was involved in $10 million of funds transfers for foreign accounts.


The bank holds over $800 billion in currency and securities and gold for foreign banks and governments. In addition, the bank holds, at no charge to the institution, $64 billion in gold for foreign banks and governments. The FRBNY has assets of over $61 billion dollars, consisting mostly of US Government securities. Its liabilities total $57 billion, most of that being Federal Reserve notes.


Currently there is $55 billion of US currency in circulation. Interestingly, the majority of the American cash in circulation is not in America. The process of putting cash into circulation involves the Fed distributing the cash to depository institutions, which further distribute the cash to its customers via withdrawals. The banks pay for the cash that they receive from the Fed out of their reserve account with the Fed.


When currency in circulation makes its way back to the Fed, it is processed by a high-speed currency processor. For the FRBNY, this processor is located at the East Rutherford Operations Center. In 17, 45% of all notes received by EROC were destroyed. Typical reasons for destroying notes include suspected counterfeit money, worn money and old bills (such as $100 bills being replaced by new-style bills). The typical life span of a $1 bill is 18 months, due to its more frequent use compared to the $100 bill, which lasts years.


The Federal Reserve’s initial task of maintaining the strength and stability of the nation’s banking system continues through the day. During the current economic recession, the Federal Reserve Bank has and will continue to use its economic regulatory powers to help the economy pull out of the recession smoothly.





Bibliography


1) Welcome to the New York Fed. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 0 August 001. http//www.ny.frb.org/introduce/


) The Key to the Gold Vault. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 7 May 1. http//www.ny.frb.org/pihome/addpub/goldvaul.pdf


) Statement of Condition of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. November 001. http//www.ny.frb.org/pihome/statistics/st.txt





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Tuesday, June 28, 2011

SOFTWARE RADIO IMPLEMENTATION

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Introduction and Problem specification





Man, powered by his imagination and inquisitive character, has wondered the mechanisms of Nature since time infinite. This quest for the truth, the ways in which his surrounding works, has led to many a scientific discoveries and innovations. Since the art of making fire and creating handcrafted tools, our civilization has come a long way. Science and Technology are making advances at an amazing rate. Communications is one area where Technology has undergone a rapid transformation. A century ago, telegraphs were regarded as luxuries and one of the few modes of communication with the rest of the world. Today, the scene appears to be quite different. From telephones and telexes to Internet, e-mail and mobiles, technology has connected the whole world into a global village.


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One of the most interesting things about communication is that it makes use of a radio -- an extremely sophisticated radio. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, and wireless communication can trace its roots to the invention of the radio by Nikolai Tesla in the 1880s (formally presented in 184 by a young Italian named Guglielmo Marconi)[1]. It was only natural that these two great technologies would eventually be combined. But now the problem was that even if a particular system were designed it would not be much appreciated if the maintaining of the system were not possible. The same happened to the usage of radio that were specifically designed for a particular application and then it had to be re-designed again due to changes in technology. It was creating a big problem as both time and money were being wasted. Here is where the Software Radio comes into picture [].


This paper systematically comes first with the problems of the conventional radio, then dealing with the design issues of the software radio. After the design issue the right platform is decided by comparing the existing technologies. The main purpose of Software Radio can be understood when it is compared to a conventional hardware radio. Let us see the functional block diagram of a receiver [] that makes use of different blocks as shown in the figure.





Fig Block Diagram of a Receiver


The signals received by the antenna are passed through Band Pass Filters and then making use of mixers and local oscillators the transmitted frequencies is converted to intermediate frequencies. If much lower frequencies are to be attained then the number of mixers and oscillators has to be increased. Then the Analogue to Digital converter samples the analog data to get a digital output that is then processed by the Digital Signal processor. The components from the Band Pass filter to ADC are all analog components. The main problems here are the limited signal processing capability and also the limitations of analog components due to thermal variations, ageing effects, manufacturing inconsistency and involvement of intense testing. One solution is to implement them by defining in software. Maximizing the number of functions handled digitally allows the radio to take advantage of the flexibility of the digital signal processing circuit. Thus the paradigm for the design of a Software Designed Radio can be seen as to minimize the number of analog components uncompromisingly. Thus in this paper there is a problem about hardware radio specified and its solution is given by defining the Software Radio, but then it is not easy to design a software radio without having prior knowledge of the constraints in it. I have tried to come out with these design issues after doing an in depth survey that would let the designer know on which aspects he has to work on. So effectively this paper deals with a problem and its solution, then the problem in the solution to the previous one with an idea which is given as below.


Design Issues of a Software Radio


Though the Radio Frequency design is the most important aspect in the designing of a software radio there are other aspects that have to be taken care of too. [4]


� Digital generation of signals Many signals will now be generated digitally in receivers and transmitters and this gives the designer more flexibility to design the waveforms needed.


� Analog to digital conversion while designing the analog to digital converter great care has to be taken regarding the resolution and sampling rate as it may affect the system.


� Digital signal processing techniques for demodulation and synchronization This part of the software radio is very important, as there is technology upgrades in this module every small time interval. With high signal processing capabilities available it has become much easier to design the software radio.





� Advanced processing techniques for range extension and interference rejection The availability of high speed signal processing capabilities facilitates the use of advanced techniques such as adaptive equalization, adaptive error correction, interference rejection, and smart antennas, which may previously have been too complex to implement in commercial radios. These algorithms offer the system designer new tradeoffs between performance and complexity.


� New power management strategies Power management is of utmost importance given that the transmitting power is more as the distance between two communicating nodes are large. So the design must support smart Sleep conditions in order to save the power and increase the lifetime of the system.


� Need for understanding of network considerations A normal radio is nothing but a mere pipeline for transmitting data, but a software radio is much smarter as it has to check the network conditions and adapt to the different situations. So the software Radio must be designed keeping in mind all the possible cases that tend to be complex. No universal algorithm can be developed as the traffic is highly dynamic and without any regular pattern.


� Security issues The main advantage of a Software radio implementation is that the system can be maintained and upgraded making use of software downloads. But care must be taken that appropriate software must be downloaded and it must be to the correct system too or else sensitive data may be in the hands of unwanted people. So authentication and verification are of utmost importance. The download on the software radio and Internet can be compared as follows. [5]





Different platforms for Software Defined Radio


The platforms for a software-defined radio can be basically divided into three Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), Digital Signal Processors and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of performance and overhead and depending on the application requirement one of the following standards are chosen.[6][7][8][]


Pros and Cons of the different platforms


FPGA Pros


� Re-configurability enables performing computational tasks at will.


� Higher flexibility for adaptive coding for multimedia requirements such as bandwidth availability, quality of service requirements and channel characteristics.


� Rapid Prototyping and design iterations.


� Certain function implementations result in decrease of die size.


� Parallel processing.


FPGA Cons


 Hardware is not ASIC and can lead to non-optimized performance and density.


 Reconfiguration time is longer than compared to loading the software.


 High power consumption during reconfiguration.


DSP Pros


� It is simpler and less expensive


� Gets 0% less expensive every year


� Can compensate a variety of errors


� Software is easier to upgrade than hardware


� Deterministic timing


DSP Cons


 DSP techniques are limited to signals with relatively low bandwidths.


 The need for an ADC and DAC makes DSP uneconomical for simple applications( e.g. simple filters)


ASIC Pros


� Benefits of customized hardware at low costs


� Re-configurable and the hardware can be used for different purposes.


ASIC Cons


 Lower performance for complex functionality.


 Fixed number of gates per chip which may not be sufficient to implement bigger and complex logic.


Major companies doing research work at the moment


IBM WIPRO


INTEL XILINX


ALTERA CISCO


INFOSYS MICROCHIP


Apart from these there are about 500 companies in 0 different countries which are spending about a few thousand billions on the development of the software radio which serves many applications and with enhanced features.


Conclusion


It can thus be concluded that if a Software Radio has to be designed, care must be taken while doing it. With many companies, provided that it follows the correct designing steps apart from investing and doing research work in full thrust, it may not be surprising if we see all applications making use of software radio with near ideal characteristics. Thus an ideal Software radio block diagram can be viewed as follows wherein all the block functionalities are designed using software. [10]





Fig An ideal software Radio Block Diagram


References


1. http//www.bigchalk.com/cgibin/WebObjects/WOPortal.woa/wa/HWCDA/file?fileid=5054&flt=Elementary&pathTitles=/Radio/Radio_Inventor_Marconi/Brief_Biography&version=&tg=Technology


. J. Mitola, III, �The Software Radio Architecture” IEEE Communications Magazine, May 15, pp. 6--8.


. http//www.csl.sony.co.jp/ATL/papers/Haruyama_Kluwer_book_chapter6_000.pdf, Shinichiro Haruyama, Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc.


4. http//www.softradios.com/education.html


5. �Security issues for Software Defined Radio design of a secure download system” Lachlan B. Michael, Miodrag J. Mihaljevic, Shinichiro Hariyama and Rhyuji Kohno IEEE Trans. Commun, vol E8 January 1.


6. �A Software Radio Architecture for Implementation Complexity Evalution of Multi- Standard Transceivers” Euro Sereni, Giuseppe Baruffa and Fabrizio Frescura. IST 000 Mobile Summit Conference, Gateway, Ireland.


7. http//www.xilinx.com/esp/dvt/collateral/fpga_dsp_adv_in_dvt.pdf


8. http//ise.hansung.ac.kr/jun/DSP/pdf/DSPnote.pdf


. White paper �A SDR platform for Satellite Earth Stations” Rob Craft, Field Application Engineer, spectral signal Processing Inc.


10. �Software Radio and Reconfiguration”, Paul Buknell, Phillips Research Laboratory. http//www.ee.ucl.ac.uk/lcs/papers000/lcs08.pdf.





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Is there a future for phage therapy?

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With fears of a post-antibiotic era, as old and new antibiotics alike are failing rapidly to resistant bacteria, a more dynamic solution is needed. A solution that can keep up with bacterial resistance mutation for mutation with its own tenacity for ‘life.’ This solution may well have been found with bacteriophage therapy. After preliminary studies gave false hopes and false negatives the majority of the scientific world turned away as it embraced antibiotics. Institutes in Georgia and Poland carried on with research in humans, but questions are still asked of the efficacy of phage therapy as many of the studies failed to include a placebo. Now with the publicaion of a new study showing the ability of phage to rescue moribund mice infected with VRE (clinically very important resistant bacteria.) Outlined below is a history, advantages and stumbling blocks of phage therapy a brief synopsis of some of the studies conducted and asks is there a future for phage therapy and is the perception of phage therapy justified?


Introduction


A brief history


Bacteriophages were probably first observed by Ernest Hankin, in 186, suggesting that an unidentified substance (small enough to pass through fine porcelain filters,) in the waters of the Ganges and Jumna rivers in India. This substance had a marked anti-bacterial activity, and was probably responsible for limiting epidemics of cholera. (1) Further similar observations were made the following 0 years by scientists across the world, although none of these investigators explored their observations. Then in 115 Frederick Twort published his observations of the phage phenomena in the Lancet and advanced a hypothesis that, amongst other possibilities, a virus may have been behind this effect. However, Twort never advanced his studies in this area, due to various reasons including financial difficulties.


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Two years later, Felix D’Herelle studying at the Institut Pasteur in Paris officially discovered bacteriophages. He observed small clear areas on agar plates he had first innoculated with Shigella strains and then treated with bacterium-free faecal samples from patients infected with Shigella. D’Herelle had no doubt to what caused the phenomena, he was adamant that it was a virus capable of parasitizing bacteria. It was D’Herelle that formed the name ‘bacteriophage’ from the words “bacteria” and “phagein” (eat or devour in Greek,) and implied that the phages ate or consumed the bacteria. D’Herelle in 11 first used phages to treat dysentery; the day prior to administration to the patient he, along with other hospital staff, ingested the phage preparation to test its safety. Upon administration to the patient (a 1 year old boy,) of a single dose, the symptoms decreased in severity after 1hrs and the boy was returned to full health after days. The efficacy of this preparation seemed to be confirmed shortly afterwards, when additional patients having bacterial dysentery after a single dose of treatment had started to recover within 4 hours. D’Herelle continued his treatments and obtained promising results (1). So promising were these results that in the 10s other researchers began using phages as well as commercial laboratories began to sell phage preparations.


It was at this point that the scientific community began to lose faith in bacteriophage therapy, as the natural limitations of phage therapy produced false-negative results in badly conceived and executed experiments. One trial involved pouring undisclosed amounts of phage into a public well in India and assessing the numbers of cholera cases subjectively. Following the replacement of hygienic measures as well as vaccination in some areas of cholera by indiscriminate phage treatment the results were disastrous. Along with the widespread success of Tetracycline the World Health Organisation reached the conclusion that investigations into phage therapy should not continue (). The public also lost faith as the commercial preparations boasted of efficacy against diseases as widespread from viral infections (e.g., Herpes, small pox, measles,) through to auto-immune diseases (cancers, leukaemias, nervous lesions,) to diseases that are multi-factorial (eczema.) These commercial preparations were also shown to contain almost zero viable phage when tested.


The scientific style of D’Herelle also played a major part in the dismissal of phage therapy. When placed in contrast to other scientists of the period, whilst Pasteur conceived definitive repeatable experiments and used a persuasive style in argument and dialogue, D’Herelle failed repeatedly to conduct definitive experiments and was argumentative and antagonistic in dialogue and argument. D’Herelle refused many opportunities to integrate his theories with the discoveries of Nobel laureates Metchnikoff and Ehrlich (showing the make up of the innate host defences against infection,) D’Herelle instead insisted that phages were the only method of defence against infection. T. Van Helvoort (1) reviewed the style in which D’Herelle conducted his experiments and showed the constant lack of double-blind experimentation. In clinical settings D’Herelle systematically failed to include any form of placebo group. However in a clinical environment it is understandable, with ethical considerations, why a placebo group is not used, (even though antibiotic experimentation was conducted in a double blind manner,) but even when D’Herelle utilised phage therapy in treating an epidemic of diarrhoea in chickens he still neglected to include a placebo group, even when ethical considerations were not an issue.


In addition to the damage D’Herelle did to his own credibility and phage therapy’s credibility with his own adamance, D’Herelle’s theories were attacked by Nobel laureate Jules Bordet (from which Bordetella Pertussis was named.) Bordet had not only an intense disliking for D’Herelle’s science, but for the man himself and used his own influence to discredit D’Herelle.


An ardent communist D’Herelle retreated from the criticism of the western scientific community and during the 10s and early 0s working with eminent Georgian bacteriologist Giorgi Eliava and other Georgian colleagues founded the Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology (EIBMV,) in Tbilisi. However, D’Herelle’s plans to move to Tbilisi were cut short when in 17 Eliava was arrested by Stalin’s NKVD, pronounced an enemy of the people and executed. D’Herelle moved back to Paris frustrated and disillusioned, and during the occupation he was incarcerated for not providing his skills with phage therapy to the German army. During imprisonment D’Herelle’s health rapidly deteriorated and he only lived a few months after being liberated. During that time he was invited to an international symposium to try and bridge the gulf between him and the scientific community. However he had been isolated for too many years from modern developments and died in 14 adamant with the belief that bacteriophages were the body’s only means of defence against infection.


With the advent of antibiotics, using experiments that were far more thorough and credible, phage investigation disappeared almost completely from use in western medicine (the exceptions I will describe later.) Phages did however continue to be used in Eastern Europe through much of the former communist block, the use of which I will describe later.


The perception of Bacteriophage therapy


The idea of using bacteriophage is deceptively simple Using viruses that are parasites to the bacteria to help kill and control bacterial infections. Being specific to prokaryotes, the viruses could then only kill the bacteria it is specific for, and leave human eukaryotic cells unharmed. However even though the scientific community admitted that the early phage experiments were badly conducted, a consensus was reached that phage therapy had no place in the antibiotic era. “What was the purpose?” it was argued, as antibiotics had quickly become akin to ‘wonder drugs’. Phages were just too unknown and unstudied to be of any use, the limitations exaggerated by the badly conducted experiments.


Justifications


As we venture into the 1st Century it is now apparent that our ‘wonder drugs’ are quickly failing over used and unable to keep up with the continuing mutations of bacteria, mutations that granted resistance. It was postulated that new generations and new classes of antibiotics would be continually researched and used so that we would be able to keep pace with resistance, meeting bacteria’s tenacity for life with our own ingenuity. No doubt should be cast that new classes of antibiotics will be found and that they will be very useful, but the pace of development and screening means that we are now too slow and antibiotics that we currently have will become obsolete. Another problem is that now bacteria, generally, are a lot better equipped to deal with antibiotics, even new ones, than they previously were. The incorporation of efflux pumps and protective enzymes can only further hinder any new antibiotics. The post-antibiotic era has been forecast and as more and more antibiotic resistant bacteria are found in hospitals around the world, a new approach is needed.


Advantages


Paradoxically one of the biggest disadvantages of administering bacteriophage therapy may be its biggest advantage over the use of antibiotics as well as a long term viable therapeutic agent; its specificity. One of the mistakes early researches made was to neglect the specificity of the phages used, because phages typically have a very narrow host range, (sometimes only one variant of a species.) However in therapeutic use, if a panel of phages were used specific to a wide variety of variants or a phage was used specific to a wide variety of variants, then only those variants would be lysed. No other species would be effected, limiting the spread of resistance. I.e. an E.coli. phage could not adhere or provoke any response to Entrococcus faecium. Another advantage is that phage therapy minimises any response from gut flora, a major side effect from oral antibiotic therapy.


Antibiotics are fixed immutable chemicals, which cannot adapt to simple bacterial mutations and so become obsolete very quickly (a mutation that confers resistance to a given antibiotic is predicted to occur every 106 divisions.) Even worse this mutation can then be passed to other species of bacteria via plasmids. For instance even though a particular bacterial strain may never have encountered a given antibiotic, if it receives resistance genes from other species that are exposed to a given antibiotic and is subjected to environment where all of its ‘competition’ (i.e. other strains) are destroyed by the antibiotic, it will flourish and spread. However phages are ‘living’ organisms in as much as that they have an innate drive for survival. Phages too, can undergo mutations, which can allow them to overcome bacterial mutations. In other words whilst antibiotics quickly fall behind in the ‘arms’ race, because they cannot change; phages can keep up with the bacteria, mutation for mutation mutant phage tail fibres allow binding to mutant bacterial receptors and mutated phage DNA can escape bacterial mutant endonucleases.


Problems also arise in antibiotic therapy because the antibiotic is metabolically destroyed as it works; therefore repeated doses are required. This gives rise to bacteria that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of antibiotic usually at the initiation of therapy, between doses (just before the next dose,) and commonly at the tail end of the course of therapy when the patient neglects to take the full course (usually the antibiotics have helped reduce the number of bacteria to asymptomatic level, but not entirely remove the infection.) A single phage is capable of exponential growth within the target bacterium, rapidly multiplying to produce anything from 00 to several thousand daughter phages depending on the phage and environment around the bacterium. These lyse the bacteria and these go on to infect other bacteria. If as is usual about 00 daughter phages are produced at the end of the 1st generation, then if all daughter phage go on to infect 1 bacterium each, there will be 40,000 phages at the end of the nd generation. And incredibly 8 million phage at the end of the rd cycle (). It is now quite clear to see why in many cases a single dose of phage is capable of quickly destroying an infection. In solely Lytic phages (the need for which I will outline below,) 1 phage is needed for the destruction of 1 bacterium, so there is no such thing as a sub-lethal dose in phage therapy.


Another area of possible advantage is the nature of cost. With Vancomycin being weight for weight more expensive than gold and phage therapy being widely utilised in the institutes of Georgia and Poland, areas not noted for their prosperity, it may be a cheaper option than first thought.


Problems and solutions


The possibilities this therapy grants looks promising, but many of the problems that plagued the first investigators and are to blame for the perceptions of the scientific community are still problems with experiments today


The use of phage strains whose host range was too narrow, meant many investigators were led to false negative results after they used ‘off the shelf’ phage preparations. However investigators who screened and matched phages to bacteria in tests analogous to culture and sensitivity tests had true-positive results. Another possible route is to culture (maybe through genetic manipulation,) phages that are lytic to a given range of bacteria. In cases where the patient is in urgent need of treatment, a panel of phages can be administered offering blanket lytic activity for the most probable infectious bacteria.


The phage preparations used were often crude bacterial debris; filter sterilised, still containing large loads of endo- and exo-toxins. These were administered orally, intravenously, intramuscularly, intraparenterally and intrathecally. Not surprisingly with the patients often in a weakened state, the ‘therapy’ often caused more harm than doing nothing.


Modern techniques such as Caesium chloride density centrifugation, banding and other modern techniques allow the removal of toxins from the lysate. Also in well conducted modern experiments a control group of uninfected animals are administered with the phage preparation to ensure its lack of toxicity.


Conversely instead of filter sterilisation a lot of the phage preparations were sterilised by heating as well as addition of mercurials and oxidisation agents. These methods are now known to inactivate the phages by disruption of the coat proteins. What compounded these mistakes was the lack of sensitivity testing after inactivation; the investigators expected full phage activity even after these disruptive methods.


One of the major problems that still exists in phage therapy is the action of the immune system and the Reticulo Endothelial System (R.E.S.) to the phages (recognised as foreign proteins.) The action of the R.E.S. was first documented by Merril et al. in 17 where they injected high concentrations of lambda phage into non-immune germ free mice. The phages were found to be rapidly cleared by the spleen, liver and other filtering organs of the R.E.S., this was not however due to Gunther Stent’s hypothesis that phages were inactivated by antibodies (the main reason cited as to why bacteriophage therapy would fail in humans.) The phages found in the spleen were still perfectly viable as therapeutic agents for more than 4hrs after filtration, but were trapped so unable to reach the point of infection.


To combat the R.E.S. activity Merril et al. developed the serial passage method (4) to select a long-circulating phage from wild-type (stock) phages. This involved the administration of various strains of phage to E.Coli infected mice (one of the strains of E.Coli. being a mutator strain, so increasing the probability that the phages would mutate as well and these mutations would give increased evasion from the R.E.S.). Then 7hrs after administration blood samples were taken and the phages in the blood sample were grown on plates of susceptible E.Coli and then reinjected. This cycle of injection, isolation and regrowth in bacteria was repeated nine more times. Then the number of phages left in the blood after a period of 18hrs was measured for both the long-circulating isolates and the original wild-type isolates. The results were that there was at least a 1,000-fold higher number of phage in the long-circulating isolate as opposed to the wild-type. The efficacy of the phages was then tested the mice that received only E.Coli were moribund within 4 hours and died within 48hrs. The mice that received either the types of phage were unaffected. The mice that received both E.Coli. and then 0 minutes later the wild-type phage became very ill exhibiting the symptoms of severe illness (lethargy, ruffled fur, hunchback posture, and partially closed eyes with exudate around the eyes,) but made a full recovery within 100 hours. The mice that received E.Coli and then 0 minutes later the long-circulating phage only showed minor signs of illness (mild lethargy and ruffled fur,) before full recovery within 100 hours. Also in the study it was shown that the long-circulating phages performed better at rescuing mice that were moribund than standard wild-type phages. Further to this the group discovered after genetic sequencing, the long-circulating phages had a single point mutation, A - G had occurred in the phage gene encoding the major head protein E. This had the effect of substituting a basic amino acid (lysine,) for an acidic one (glutamic acid,) causing a double charge shift readily seen on -D electrophoresis. Computer modelling predicted that the mutation occurred in the loop of the E protein that sticks out into space and interacts with the external environment, and conceivably this mutation would change the interaction between the phage and the receptors of the microcirculation in the spleen (). As advances are made in the human genome and genetic manipulation of phages; it may be possible in future to expand upon the work of selecting long-circulating traits in phages and engineer other long-circulating properties into phages.


Another problem in early phage experiments was the failure to distinguish between lytic and lysogenic phages. Lysogenic phages do not always lyse the host bacterium, but integrate portions of their genome into the bacterial genome as ‘prophages.’ Whilst this led to problems in experimentation as it did not provide rapid lysis and exponential growth and therefore decreased efficacy. Lysogenic properties could also prove a major problem in widespread therapy the prophage’s genome could be combined with the bacterial genome in such a way as to produce resistance in that bacteria to certain phages and as a part of the bacterial genome it could be passed to other bacteria. A possible scenario could be that the viral genome was combined and gave rise to an entirely novel bacterium that had never been seen before. These are dangers that can arise if lysogenic phages were used on wide scale. To ensure against this, lytic bacteria should be screened for and selected for with any lysogenic traits thoroughly selected against during propagation.


As well as problems encountered in the past there are problems still to be dealt with


According to studies by S.Slopek et al. (187) neutralising antibodies appear within a few weeks of first administration of phages to animals and humans. Given the time lag antibodies would not seem likely to interfere with acute treatment lasting a week or so, but in chronic treatment and/or recurrent infections the neutralising antibodies might prevent some proportion of administered phage being able to adhere to the bacterial target.


In treating chronic/recurrent infections it may be possible to administer a higher dose of phage, to compensate for those that are rendered non-viable by interaction with neutralising antibodies. This also poses risks, because the possibility of the toxicity of antibody-phage complexes has not yet been investigated (5).


Opsonins may restore vulnerability of even long-circulating phages to the R.E.S. and also prior exposure to the phage will likely accelerate a dangerous immune reaction.


These are all valid concerns, but only through extensive testing will definitive solutions be found.


Preclinical studies in animals


The extensive testing done by H.Williams Smith and M. B. Huggins during the 180s has proved invaluable in furthering the case that well conducted thorough testing proves that phage therapy works. Their proving of phage therapy’s superiority in treatment of Experimental Escherichia coli Infections in mice over antibiotics was a major step forward in 18 (8). This was almost a template of how to conduct an experiment of this nature they screened and tested the efficacies of different strains of phage (had they isolated from sewage,) in vitro. They then used the potent strains to test the efficacy of the phage against E.Coli. Also important, they included a control group, given no phage.


The results were that at x 107 phages injected intramuscularly no mice died and even as low as x 104 phages injected intramuscularly or even x 10 phages injected intravenously produced full recovery and zero fatalities. All mice died if denied treatment by phage.


Perhaps more telling was the study of phages against antibiotics


Treatment No. of doses % died


Extract of E. Coli culture only 1


+Phage 1 6


+Streptomycin 1 6


+Streptomycin 8 10


+Tetracycline 1 76


+Tetracycline 8 4


+Ampicillin 1 100


+Ampicillin 8 86


+Chloramphenicol 1 100


+Chloramphenicol 8 6


+Trimethoprim and sulphafurazole 1


+Trimethoprim and sulphafurazole 8 86


As can be seen in the findings one dose of phage was marginally more effective to 8 doses of Streptomycin and greatly superior to 8 doses of tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol or Trimethoprim plus sulphafurazole. “The marked superiority of phage (R) over one dose of streptomycin emphasised its self-perpetuating nature in the presence of susceptible bacteria, a most desirable characteristic for any antibacterial agent.


Their work on Calves, Piglets and Lambs (6) may also prove extremely useful in the development in the use of bacteriophage therapy in agriculture to replace the overuse of prophylactic antibiotics which is a major source of resistance especially for enterococcal infections that are exposed via the food chain. From the outset they saw positive results proving that phages given prophylactically protected calves, piglets and lambs (complex mammals,) from otherwise lethal doses of E.coli in the environment. Even when exposed to faeces containing lethal dose calves did not fall ill due to prophylactic spraying of phage in the living space. In their conclusions they make several observations That strains of E.Coli that were resistant to phages used or developed resistance through the experiment, showed marked decrease in virulence and pathological potential whist antibiotic resistant bacteria showed no change in virulence or pathological potential. If this is common for all bacteria has yet to be shown. Also of interest is the report that Calves infected with E.Coli and were subsequently rescued with phage were not infectious to other calves. Even if uninfected calves were exposed to the faeces (which contained a lethal dose of E.Coli) of infected animals treated with phage, they themselves did not contract any E.Coli. Not only that but the phage in uninfected calves (treated with phage prophylactically,) survived longer than E.Coli. in infected faeces. The authors also suggested that the more a suitable phage is used in an infected community the better the control of the clinical disease in that community. It is not difficult to extrapolate this suggestion to a hospital setting where there is a large pool of infectious disease brought in from quite different communities, the proximity of immuno-compromised individuals and the widespread use of antibiotics.


In a later paper Williams Smith, Huggins and K. Shaw tested what kind of factors affected the viability of phages in possible environments (7). Their experiments show it was quite possible for antibodies, generated from previous exposure to the phage, to interfere with the functioning of the phage, but this was overcome by administering higher doses of phage or antigenically different phage (possible avenue of genetic manipulation,). Orally taken phage preparations were destroyed at physiological pH of the stomach (pH .0,) but phages were readily absorbed into the blood if taken orally with CaCO or similar alkali agent or with food. They also undertook investigations into the damage disinfectants did to phage preparations if phage solutions were to be used in the general environment formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite destroying phages at low concentrations, and (with mild variations between phages,) phenol and chloroxylenol having little effect on phages even at high concentrations. This is quite clearly of use if phage preparations were to sprayed or used in general cleaning as a disinfectant in a hospital environment. Of more use was the investigation of the effect of temperature on phages. The results varied marginally between phages, but the vast majority of phages were most virulent at 7oC. The phages’ virulence declined sharply below 0-4oC and most importantly at pyrexic temperatures phages also showed marked decrease in virulence above 40oC. This is of vital importance in use of infections that cause pyrxia, but the authors expressed hope in the form that not all phages showed this effect and some were most virulent at 40-4oC. They also went on to demonstrate that slight variations in the strains of phages conferred large differences in the optimum temperature of virulence. This is obviously an area of further study.


One of the latest animal experiments provides even more support for using phage therapy in treatment of clinically important resistant bacteria. A report by B. Biswas, S. Adhya et al. published in January 00 () demonstrated the usefulness of phage therapy in treating Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). In the introduction the authors described briefly why VRE was important to work with and described the limitations encountered in treating VRE with new classes of antibiotic It appears that quinupristin-dalfopristin has only limited use against VRE in that it is bacteriostatic and bacteria have already been isolated resistant to analogues of its components and so a ‘reservoir’ exists already for resistance for this particular antibiotic. Linezolid (the first member of a new class of antibiotics- the oxzazolodinones,) is also bacteriostatic and resistance occurred rapidly to its first use in clinical trials. The group found that mice injected with the maximum dose ( x 10 pfu,) of the phage 45 minutes after challenge by a lethal dose of VRE showed only slight lethargy for the first 4 hours. Those mice not in receipt of any phage died within 48 hours. At 0hrs following administration of phage the mean bacterial titre of the phage treated animals was 00-fold lower than mice given a placebo (008l of PBS.) “This reduction in bacterial titres reflected the lower morbidity and mortality observed in the treated group.” In another experiment it was shown that a single injection of phage could rescue 100% of the mice from an otherwise lethal dose of VRE even when treatment was delayed to 5 hours after inoculation with VRE. If the treatment was delayed 18 hours (at which point the mice were observed to be severely ill severe lethargy, ruffled fur, hunched posture and exudate accumulation around partially closed eyes,) then 60% survived and were completely recovered within 6 hours. If treatment was delayed for 4 hours (where all mice observed were moribund,) phage therapy rescued 40% of these and they regained full health in 10 hours. Whilst a 40% survival rate may not seem high, it is 40% more than no treatment or administration of vancomycin. The group also began to answer some of the critics of bacteriophage therapy who had dismissed the phenomena to a non-specific immune response stimulated by the viruses. The group of mice injected with heat inactivated phage had exactly the same response as the group injected with placebo (PBS.) The immunological response was also tested; 5 monthly injections of the phage were administered. Whilst both levels of IgG and IgM were increased massively after months no anaphylactic reactions, changes in core temperature or other adverse events were recorded.


Human trials


The most detailed polish papers on phage therapy in humans were written by Slopek et al. at the L.Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy. These papers were summarised in the final paper in the series published (10). 1 out of 18 cases of suppurative bacterial infection had a good therapeutic result. And of those 18, 0% cases were antibiotic resistant (however no records of the antibiotics used are given.)


The observations described however are subjective


16% showed complete recovery


71% complete healing of lesions and liquidation of suppurative process


5% had marked improvement of local state with partial haling of lesions and negative result of bacterial culture.


6% had ‘transient’ improvement and was difficult to describe.


The investigators noticed that those above 60 years old, % that didn’t respond well to treatment, as opposed to only 5% of patients below 1 years old and 1% of patients between 0-5. There was no significant difference between female of male patients and the efficacy of the phage.


The methods of administration were oral and local application. The investigators did not inject i.v. because they wanted to minimise the shock to the patient from possible anaphylaxis. When applying orally the phages were administered times a day, in a 10ml ampoule; 0 minutes before a meal and after neutralisation of gastric juice (gelatum and baking soda or a glass of Vichy water given.)


When locally applied on wounds, moist applications were recommended times every 4-hour period. During the course of the treatment a constant check was kept on the bacterial type causing the infection so the phage applied could be changed if necessary. (One method of keeping checks on resistance.) Phages were also used prophylactically for 14 days if negative bacterial culture found. The majority of successful treatment took place when the phages were administered orally and locally. This may have been due to double the amount of phage in these patients or simply due to the combined therapy; more investigation will be needed in this field.


cases out of 18 suffered ‘side effects’ displayed intolerance at oral administration and 1 had allergic symptoms at local application. No further information is given about these very important cases.


General observations included that close observation for the first 8 days is advised because during days -5 of phage therapy; hepatalgia occurred lasting several hours (due to mass liberation of endotoxins from lysis of bacteria.) In some cases of sepsis increase of temperature noted on days 7-8 lasting 4 hours.


The major criticism of the work in Poland is the lack of placebo group (due to the financial constraints,) which unfortunately renders this work as promising but somewhat anecdotal evidence in favour of phage therapy.


One of the most extensive trials carried out on phage therapy use in humans was conducted in Tbilisi during 16 and 164. (1) (the original being in Georgian, I’m relying on the interpretation of Sulakvelidze at al.) A total of 0,76 children (6 months old � 7 years old,) diagnosed with bacterial dysentery took part in the study. 17,044 children were given Shigella phages orally (once a week,) and 1,75 children were not given phage. During the 10 day study period, it was noted from clinical diagnoses that the incidence of dysentery was .8 fold higher in the placebo group than the phage group and from culture confirmed cases the incidence of dysentery was .6 fold higher in the placebo group than the phage treated group. There was also a . fold reduction in the incidence of diarrheal diseases of unknown origin among children treated with phage as opposed to the placebo group. This may have been due to misdiagnoses of some dysentery cases or maybe due to the phage being active against more than one type of gastrointestinal pathogens.


Other clinical studies carried out in Tbilisi seem to follow the scientific rigour of its founder with numerous promising studies of phage therapy in action but a constant lack of placebo controls. This may yet again be not only due to financial constraints but also ethical considerations when using phage on a day to day basis as the Institute at Tbilisi. It seems that the institute in Georgia, maybe in part to the lack of international recognition, has now devoted itself to furthering its own studies, instead of trying to convince the western scientific community that phage therapy actually works For the scientists working at Tbilisi they know it works. It seems also that language still remains a formidable barrier for the passage of knowledge into main stream science with most of the papers on human trials being published in Russian, Georgian and Polish, they remain almost ignored by the scientific community.


Conclusions





For the western scientific community it seems that more evidence is required of its efficacy in animals before trials move in to the human stage and despite the work done on phage therapy, questions still remain unanswered. The effect of chronic treatment of phages in humans still remains unknown in fact serious study of the mechanisms of attachment to bacteria, the interactions between phages and the RES still are required. The method and localisation of passage of phages from the gut lumen into the blood stream is still unknown. Minimal work has been done of the life span of not only the phages in the body but also the antibodies raised up against them. What if phages are administered to hypersensitive people or pregnant women? Would the phages cross to the placenta? Would these pose a risk to the foetus or the mother? Would phage be found in colostrum? At what concentration could phage be toxic to the patient? (So far it appears that phages are entirely non-toxic but up to what point?)


So despite these unknowns and the legacy left by D’Herelle and other bacteriophage investigators whos misadventures almost resigned phage therapy to an interesting anecdote in medical history; what is the future of bacteriophage therapy?


The future looks very promising; with unmatched superior efficacy over antibiotics proven conclusively in animals, its non-toxicity shown in animals and the potential of rescuing moribund conditions. As advancements are made in genetics and sequencing of bacteriophages and their hosts continues, our knowledge of the mechanisms of their action will also increase. The work done in mice with VRE is an excellent example of how useful phage therapy could be.


Although treatable with other antibiotics VRE remains potentially very dangerous because of the possibility of transferral of vancomycin resistance genes to Multiple Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA.) If ever a virulent form of MRSA emerged with complete Vancomycin resistance (so far only intermediate resistant forms have been discovered,) that would leave medicine with no antibiotic to treat infections a true ‘superbug.’ Phage therapy could not only treat this bacteria if it ever arose, but would also prevent the generation of such a bacteria if used in combination therapy with antibiotics. Phage investigators are not seeking to replace antibiotic therapy with phage, but to find methods of complimenting the two. Administering both phage and antibiotic would severely limit the generation of completely resistant bacteria. Since the mechanisms of action of each agent are almost entirely removed from each other for instance if a bacteria had resistance to one of the agents used, that mechanism of resistance would grant the bacteria no protection from the other agent and vice versa.


In the introduction I outlined a brief list of the advantages of bacteriophage therapy over antibiotics, this list is not intended to prove the superiority of phage over antibiotics, it is merely to try and show that phage therapy could be a vital addition to overcome problems in existing therapy. I also gave a brief account of the general public and scientific perception of phage therapy and unfortunately a lot of the criticism levelled at phage therapy in D’Herelle’s era remain to this day lack of placebo controlled trials. This however doesn’t mean that this attitude towards phage therapy has to continue indefinitely and with the production of more conclusive, well conducted studies, the criticism against phage therapy should give way to increased enthusiasm for this potentially world changing ‘historical anecdote.’


(1) Sulakvelidze A, Zemphira A, et al. 001. Minireview of Bacteriophage Therapy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 45.. 64-65


() Barrow P.A., Soothill J.S. 17. Bacteriophage therapy and prophylaxis rediscovery and renewed assessment of potential. Trends in Microbiology, 5.7. 68-71


() Carlton R.M. 1. Phage therapy Past History and Future Prospects. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, 47, 67-74


(4) Merril et al. 16. Long Circulating bacteriophage as antibacterial agents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, , 188-1


(5) Lederberg J. 16. Smaller fleas… ad infinitum Therapeutic bacteriophage redux. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. , 167-168


(6) Williams Smith H., Huggins M. B., 18. Effectiveness of Phages in Treating Experimental Escherichia coli Diarrhoea in Calves, Piglets and Lambs. Journal of General Microbiology, 1, 65-675


(7) Williams Smith H., Huggins M. B., Shaw K. M., 187. Factors Influencing the Survival and Multiplication of Bacteriophages in Calves and in Their Environment, 1, 117-115


(8) Williams Smith H., Huggins M. B., 18. Successful Treatment of Experimental Escherichia coli Infections in Mice Using Phage its General Superiority over Antibiotics


() Biswas B., Adhya S., et al. 00. Bacteriophage Therapy Rescues Mice Bacteremic from a Clinical Isolate of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium.


(10) Slopek et al. 18 Results of bacteriophage treatment of suppurative bacterial infections. Archivum Immungiae et Therapaiae Experimentalis, 1, 67


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Monday, June 27, 2011

JFK Assassination

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When president John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated on November , 16, the nation was shocked. JFK was a highly thought of president and his death brought many mixed emotions. The assassination of JFK is perhaps the most controversial case in American history. Many find it hard to believe that a lone gunman killed President Kennedy. Most believe that there was a conspiracy and that there is more to the story that what the government would like the public to know. Almost immediately following the assassination, numerous theories surfaced which contradicted the official government version of the case that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in killing the president (Lifton). Although some are farfetched, many of these theories have valid arguments which cannot be ignored. Even though the incident took place four decades ago, the fascination with the assassination has not dwindled one bit. To even attempt to understand why there has been so much controversy concerning JFK’s assassination, one must first become acquainted not only with the inconsistencies of the official version of the case, but also be aware of the changing political and social cultures over the decades.





The official government version presented by the Warren Commission Report was that Lee Harvey Oswald took three shots from the sixth floor of the Texas Book Depository of which two hit and consequently killed president Kennedy. While public opinion does not support this theory, the government continues to insist that this is indeed what took place. One main argument made by skeptics is that they find it hard to believe that Oswald’s shots would find their target nearly 00 feet away and especially given that he used substandard equipment. Another thing that often puzzles conspiracy theorists is that there does not seem to be any clear-cut motive for why Lee Harvey Oswald would kill JFK (Marrs).





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There are several eyewitness accounts of the incident that contradict the lone gunman theory. Several people claim that some of the shots came from the front of the limousine. Specifically, they say these shots came from the grassy knolls located on the right side of Elm Street. Another piece of evidence that contradicts the official report is the fact that there is testimony from several Parkland and Bethesda medical personnel, as well as federal agents that there was a large wound in the back of the President’s head which suggests that the shot actually came from the front and not Oswald’s alleged rear position. Further evidence that Kennedy was shot from the front is provided in the Zapruder films. The Zapruder film was a short film made by a local spectator named Abraham Zapruder during the incident. The film shows Kennedy’s head jerking backwards and to the left in reaction to the initial shot (Marrs).


One popular theory that discounts the official version claims that either the FBI and/or CIA were behind the assassination. According to those that support this version, Kennedy was viewed as a threat to the “national security” of the United States by these agencies. Some believed that Kennedy had betrayed the CIA and the anti-Castro Cubans during the Bay of Pigs invasion by not providing the full weight of air support, which resulted in many invaders being killed. In addition, the CIA was bitterly disappointed that Kennedy had come to an agreement with the Soviets over Cuba (Marrs).





Another popular theory was that the Mafia was involved. One of the reasons that they could have conspired to kill Kennedy was the President’s brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, had been using his legal powers to act vigorously against some of the larger and more influential Mafia bosses. Eliminating President Kennedy would have resulted in a new government and therefore Robert Kennedy would be replaced. On November 4, 16 just days following the Kennedy Assassination, Jack Ruby shot and killed Oswald while he was being transferred to a city prison. Many would later point to Ruby’s alleged Mafia links as further proof that the Mafia was behind the assassination (Lifton). These and many other theories spread as new information surfaced and public awareness was raised through the publication of books about the assassination, not to mention the increasing use of the internet to exchange information and theories.





In 176, the U.S. Senate ordered a fresh inquiry into the assassination of President Kennedy. People who had been involved in the original Warren Commission investigations were asked to make fresh statements. The FBI and CIA were required to release more of their documents on Oswald. Most important of all, pieces of evidence such as photos and sound recordings were subjected to scientific analysis using the most up-to-date methods and equipment. The House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) completed their investigation in 17 and came to the conclusion that, although Oswald had fired three shots at Kennedy and one of those had killed the president, a fourth shot was fired from the grassy knoll and it was more likely than not that JFK was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy (Marrs).


It is important to note that the HSCA investigation was set up as a direct result of the assassinations of two other major political figures Dr. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and Robert Kennedy, the President’s brother. The American public questioned why so many key political figures were being assassinated. At the time there was also an increasing amount of corruption and scandal within the government. This alarmed the public who had completely trusted the government before. The Watergate Scandal in 174 involving President Nixon had clearly shown that the government could not be trusted. Because Nixon had abused his authority and power to his advantage, the public saw this as an indication that even government officials were prone to sleaze and scandal. Even those that had believed the Warren Commission’s findings of the case were now more receptive in accepting that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy.


There are several factors that contribute to the continuing fascination with the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Initially, it could have been attributed to the inability of a nation in mourning to be unable to accept and wanting to make sense of the sudden death of such a popular and charismatic president. Then, as the political and social cultures evolved over the decades, the public was not as trusting of government. With new technology and the ready exchange of information and ideas, it is not uncommon nowadays for the public to question government actions and for conspiracy theories to spread.


Works Cited


Lifton, David S. Best Evidence. New York Macmillan Publishing Co. 180.


Marrs, Jim. Crossfire The Plot That Killed Kennedy. New York Carroll and Graff Publishers, 18.


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Explication of “Ballad of Birmingham”

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When one thinks of church they most often will think of a refuge, a safe place. Everyone expects to be able to go to church and get away from their troubles and not have to worry about whether they are in danger or not . However sometimes we can be in danger in the least expected places. In the poem, “Ballad of Birmingham” written in 166 by Dudley Randall, this becomes a reality. “Randall establishes racial progress as he recounts the incident, based on a historical event of the bombing in 16 of Martin Luther King, Jr.s church by white terrorists” (Miller 1). Irony plays a big part also in the ballad showing the church as the war zone and the freedom march as the safer place to be.


The poem tells the story of a woman who doesn’t let her daughter go to play in town because she feels that it is too dangerous, but instead sends her to church where she feels that her daughter will be safe. The tragic irony of the story is that while the little girl is at church singing in the choir, the church is bombed and she is killed. (Sullivan ). This shows the very clear structure that the poem has.


There are two key themes in this poem. The themes of the story seem to be, there is no sanctuary in an evil world, and one may face horror in the street as well as in the church (Miller 1). The idea that Randall wants to get across is that there is that when racial issues are involved there is no safe place to be.


Much like traditional ballads, the tone is set with the first stanza of the poem, where the daughter says, Mother dear, may I go downtown-- Instead of out to play,--And March the streets of Birmingham--In a Freedom March Today? From these lines we can tell that a tragedy is sure to happen. The setting of the story is in the mother and daughter’s home and then also at the end at the church. The speakers are the mother and daughter who speak in first person at the beginning of the poem. In the first and third stanzas the daughter speaks and in the second and fourth stanzas the mother speaks. Starting with the fifth stanza until the end, the narrator is speaking and the point of view changes to third person. Randall’s audience is to all people, letting them know that we can not be safe anywhere when evil is involved. He is talking to mothers, children, Freedom March demonstrators, and bombers. He is talking to anyone that is willing to listen.


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Randall does not use many rhetorical devices such as metaphors or similes in his works of literature, but he does give a few examples in this poem. An example of personification is given when he said “she clawed through the bits of glass and brick”. He also uses hyperbole, which is an exaggeration, when he says “she bathed until she was rose petal sweet”. (Sullivan )


This whole poem is symbolic of the fact that the bombing took place in Birmingham and four black children actually died. Randall uses every day language to get his message across. He uses modern English and uses closed form poetry. The poem is metered like this; ABCB, DEFE, GHIH, JKLK, MNON, PQRQ, STUT, and VWXW. There are eight stanzas in all with total lines. The poem is written with a regular rhyme scheme and in iambic tetrameter that makes the poem sound very nursery rhyme like (Carey 4). Because of this the poem flows very well and we are able to follow it very well.


I thought this poem gave an excellent description of what life must have been like for blacks during this time period. They felt like they weren’t safe anywhere because of the racial protests that were going on and the bombing in Birmingham at this church proved that even more. I thought Randall did an excellent job getting his point across and allowing us to feel what the mother felt. I recommend this poem to everyone.





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Sunday, June 26, 2011

Internet censorship

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By Will Wentworth


Internet Censorship There is a growing debate about censoring the internet. Some people think that the internet is protected under the first ammendment and cannot be censored. Others think that some of the material that is on the net needs to be filtered and regulated. The word censorship is defined as examining any material and prohibiting what is objectionable, according to Webster’s II dictionary. Censoring the internet is a violation of the first ammendment rights of every citizen in the United States. There are two general truths that some people feel are attitudes towards censoring the internet. The first is that very few people admit to favoring it. The second is that no matter who you are, in a matter of minutes spent surfing the net almost anyone can find something that they find to be offensive. In fact, some web surfers feel that the truly inappropriate things are inspired by one’s own religion. For example, the Nurenberg Files website showed pictures of mangled fetuses with the photograph, name, and address of some abortion clinic doctors. If someone were to kill one of the doctors then an ‘X’ was put over their picture. This site may not harm a child, but it seems that the focus today is on what is inappropriate for the child to see. What about the adults? A site like this “clearly acts to corrupt and deprave the adults who take it seriously” (Brown 48). Another reason for not censoring the internet is the psychological effects that it can have on a child. The filtering of the internet can tell a child that adults do not trust them to surf the net on their own. This can lead them to believe that they can not make their own decisions, and that a computer determines what right and wrong is. These filters also give off the impressions that the communities are unsafe and the school officials have not got the know how to do their job. Many teachers try to teach their students responsibility. This can be done in many ways, one of which is through the internet policy in our schools. By not censoring the internet and trusting children to make the right decisions they can get a boost of self-esteem that so many children need these days (Nellen 5). The filtering devices can obstruct a teacher in their quest to teach their students. For example, Ted Nellen wanted to use to obtain some information on the AIDS virus to help him teach his class. He tried to get information of the internet at the school he teaches at and found that to be impossible because the filtering devices that were installed worked (Nellen 5). Another question that needs to be asked is who are the people that are determining whether a site should be filtered or not? Just because they find something offensive does not mean that there is not some one out there who would find the site unoffensive. These people can filter what is put on the internet, so what is stopping them from doing this sort of thing in other areas of American culture. Filtering the internet is not the answer to the problem. Children and adults should be educated on what is right and wrong on the internet and not treated like they are criminals (Nellen 5). The software that is available for the purpose of internet filtering and blocking has been able to block out certain web sites, but the web is always changing and the software is outdated so fast that censoring that way is not worth it. Another way to censor is to leave it up to the internet server. Even they cannot keep up with the growing number of sites and monitor each and every one. These undesirable sites are not easily found unless a specific word is typed in as a search engine or if the web site is known. However, those who are for censoring the internet all have the same argument, which is that the obscene sites will cause some kind of unacceptable behavior that will lead to violence. They feel the software is a good thing even though it becomes obselete within a short period of time. When a person subscribes to an internet provider they are receive with a few services. The first one is the use web itself. The user can see postings made by the internet provider or by other people. A user can access any website he or she wants as long as they know the website’s address. Another option that internet users have is the ability to send messages across the web to another person by sending them an e-mail. E-mail is included in most internet servers’ packages. The last major service that the internet provides is Usenet News. Usenet News is where all the issues of today are discussed by internet users. These kinds of things are what some critics want to censor. E-mail is just like using the telephone and phone calls are not censored, so the internet should not be either. If the whole story cannot be presented on the internet then the Usenet News is useless because no one can get all the facts. The web itself is where advertisements and offers take place and the only way to find these offensive sites is to type in a key word that a child must already know. On the internet a user can put up signs, banners, ads, displays, etc. of anything they want. The press always uses the first ammendment as their justification for what they do and the internet users should also receive the same benefits from the first ammendment as the reporters do. There are three main ways that the attempt to block obscene sites from children. The first is software that goes through a list of offensive sites and if the one using the computer feels the site is inappropriate then the software will block the site. The second is software that looks for words that could be connected to pornography or violence and chooses when to deny access to the site. The last one is provided by the internet server and blocks out portions of the site that are inappropriate (The Economist 84). However, there are new sites popping up all the time and the software cannot keep up with the growing number of sites. Children can just type in any word and get a whole list of sites related to that topic. In some cases the blocking of anything to do with that topic can prove to be anything but helpful. For example, America Online’s word-screening software caused a forum on cancer to be shut down because the word “breast” was mentioned. The White House web site was shut off because the word couple was mentioned (The Economist 84). In addition, net minders like Surf Watch have no official watcher to tell the users what sites are being blocked. Surf Watch seems to be the leader in the struggle to keep inappropriate sites away from the eyes of children. The installation is easy for anyone, even the computer illiterate. Surf Watch will block up to sixteen categories in four main categories which are violence and hate speech, gambling, sexually intended items, and illegal drugs and alcohol. Search Watch will not allow any search engines that are considered sexually explicit. At the present time some of these net watchers are not free and some people do not want to pay the money to own one. A simple solution to the idea of censoring the internet for everyone with a computer to be given one of these net watchers free with the purchase of a computer. The government has a good reason to be involved with the controlling access operation because As networked digital communications become more prevalent, consumers will be faced with justifying the purchase of a PC and modem or computer-powered television. If that purchase comes with the added cost of access-control software, theres an inherent disincentive to embrace interactive technologies (Ratcliffe 16). As long as the system allows the computer owner to change his or her list of inappropriate sites, then it does not violate the first ammendment right. In order to make this access control system available threre are a few simple things that must be done. First, the access control API would need to be available for all the web browsers and microsoft and apple computers. An ambitious company could promote the API as freeware and allow for the option of add ons to this free piece of software. However there is a problem, getting support for such a plan. Using the International Telecommunications Union the United Nations could get a global license to this kind of technology and distribute it through the International Telecommunications Union for an annual cost. After this was all squared away the individual countries could decide what needs to be installed and how to download additions to the program (Ratcliffe 16). A solution to this problem was presented in Paris in May of 16. The meeting was attended by a plethora of internet and computer firms. They decided that self-rating was the way to go when it came to preventing the children from seeing inappropriate sites. The Platform for Internet Content Selection was the name given to this idea and it allows internet providers to put a rating on their contents using software that runs on either the users on computer or doing it through the internet provider, which is more difficult to get around. This allows for people to write what they want on the internet, but what they write may not be seen as appropriate and will be blocked (The Economist 84). Another argument for censoring the internet is the pornographic sites that are easily accessible can cause children to view things that are inappropriate. In 16 President Clinton signed the Telecommunications Act which included the Communications Decency Act. The Communications Decency Act was intended to protect young children from those sites which are not in their best interests to see (Lewis 114). However, there are problems with this law. The Telecommunications Act of 16 does not successfully get the job done. Any child can still find material that is not meant for them to see. The act says that adults can communicate using any words they want to as long they are careful not to be accused of harassment. These words and phrases can seem sexual to one person, but just casual conversation to another. The laws that were made to protect minors from offensive material are very unclear. The term “indecent” that was used in items aimed at protecting adults as well as children is unconstitutionally vague (Sjoerdsma 01).Lewis says It is also stupid, because it assumes that Congress can regulate an international computer network that is percent private and that is composed of users who are more than 50 percent non-American. It assumes it can outsmart my two teenagers technologically, and it is offensive because it assumes that the Government can provide a better moral compass for my kids than my wife and I are already providing (84). Lewis feels that the best way to prevent inappropriate material from being viewed on the internet is to make all the users identifiable (Lewis 84). This idea may work for a while, but false identifications can be entered and if that is said to be impossible all anyone has to do is look at all the under twenty-one people who have id’s saying they are twenty-one. It would only be a matter of time before fake id’s would be available for internet use. Edwin Diamond said “It doesn’t take a magnifying glass to find hard-core pornography on the Internet...and since many youngsters can navigate circles around their elders on the Net, some adults are in near panic” (Diamond 0). Pornography is defined as material, films, printed matter, or devices dealing with sexual poses or acts considered indecent by the public. Pornography is censored in almost every form of communication. Movies, books, and even stores that specialize in sexual toys, movies, and magazines are being censored in this day and age in stores that make a profit from selling sexual material. Pornography is not something that a user justs happens to discover. The pornographic sites need to be triggered by a key word typed into the search engine. Children who find these sites have to have some knowledge of the topic of sex in order to type in a word that would lead to a sexual site. Of course there are accidental discoveries of these sites, but any further exploration is done by the user. Many people want to regulate these sites, but they do not realize the amount of money it costs or the time it involves in order to effectively censor the net. Moreover, studies have been conducted that show that pornography is represents only a small portion of the entire internet traffic. Steve Lloyd feels regulation of the net is not very practical because “It’s virtually impossible to regulate the net because of the global nature of this communications device. It would mean monitoring every phone call into the Internet which is impossible to do” (). The internet was designed to be able to operate under any condition. The internet service providers have found it very costly to censor portions of newsgroups without blocking the whole site. Pornography is a very miniscule amount of the internet user’s interest (Gidari). Gidari feels that internet regulation is a futile thought because Anything as massive as the global system of interconnected networks that is the internet can not be “regulated” in any meaningful manner. The very nature of the internet precludes its effective regulation. It was designed to be a self-healing network of diverse platforms capable of opreating under the most adverse of conditions - nuclear holocaust” (Gidari). If what Albert Gidari says is true then the internet can not be censored because that would defeat the whole purpose of its creation. The following editorial appeared in the Knight Ridder Tribune News Service. These articles are right on the money as to why the internet should not be censored. Here is the first article in part Knowledge at the fingertips. Thats the charm of the Internet, the global network of computers that allows anyone with the capability, even a grade-schooler, to tap into vast pools of information at any time.The Internet, indeed, may be the closest society has come yet to free and equal access to information for all. The relative ease of access is also the Internets bane. There is no telling the range of information one could be exposed to or the nature of activities one could be drawn into, knowingly or unknowingly. With children, controlling what they see once they are on-line becomes a problem as well. Pornography on computer networks and unsavory characters on chat lines have garnered much attention, but consider the three eighth-graders arrested recently for allegedly plotting to bomb their junior high school in the Syracuse area of New York. They gained information on materials and how to build the bombs from the Internet, and police say they were serious about following through. They had set off a test bomb in a field behind an elementary school. As has been pointed out many times, an interested person could gather the same information from a public library. True enough, but space and money preclude public libraries from stocking every piece of available information. The process of selection, based on the principle of community standards and needs, imposes some limitation. Global computer networks bypass even such minimal limitation. Being plugged into the global network is a release from traditional barriers to knowledge, and with the vast pools of information come multitudes of opportunities for misuse. Computer-inspired pranks and outright crime, from murder to fraud, are as likely as the potential for beneficial use. As the network industry matures, incidents such as the youngsters bomb plot will continue to invite serious efforts to reduce abuses. Provisions in the new telecommunications bill such as the ban against pornography and indecent material directed at minors are one form of response. In a free system such as the Internet, however, monitoring data from computers worldwide may be next to impossible, and strict content regulation would destroy the freedom that gives the Internet its value. Personal computers have brought global links down to individual levels. In time, from their very usage, new technologies generate new levels of public awareness and their own standards of use consistent with the constitutional rights of all users. In that vein, the markets response in developing software allowing parents or operators to block access to certain services is most reasonable and practical. The only guarantee against egregious abuse of the global computer networks, in the end, is a well-developed ethic of personal responsibility, in which users and those who provide the services are mindful of the potential for mischief (Knight Ridder 1). This article was provided as a way of showing the reader why the internet should not be censored. The solution is not in censoring the internet, but in teaching children what the difference between right and wrong is. Like the article says “In a free system such as the Internet, however, monitoring data from computers worldwide may be next to impossible, and strict content regulation would destroy the freedom that gives the Internet its value” (Knight Ridder 1). The second article is also pro internet freedom as well. Here is the article to clarify any misconceptions about this paper’s purpose Like the Maytag repairman in the TV commercials, Congress is itching to fix something that isnt broken the Internet and online services. As part of the vast new telecommunications bill, both House and Senate are on the brink of making it a federal crime to expose minors to naughty words or pictures in cyberspace. Double-clicking the ``send icon could become a dangerous act. Jail terms and huge fines would be slapped on anyone caught ``knowingly transmitting indecent material to minors, or to any freely accessible area of a computer network. Reports from the online front indicate that dirty talk and sexually graphic images are far less prevalent, or available, than the recent congressional lather on the topic would lead you to believe. In fact, the glossy mags behind the counter at any convenience store are probably more accessible to the young. So far, though, nothing has served to turn back this movement. Never mind that the Justice Department insists existing laws are adequate to combat illegal pornography, in whatever form. Never mind that, given the global nature of the Internet, any attempt to enforce a national standard of decency is doomed. Never mind that the whole push to set federal government up as cyber-censor runs contrary to the prevailing philosophy Get intrusive federal bureaucrats off the backs of citizens and trust in the magic of the free market to solve problems. The maddening thing is this is one case where the profit motive ``is riding to the rescue. Ever since the alarms first went up, the software industrys wizards have been churning out programs that enable adults to monitor and block objectionable material. Not even a flaming _ e-mail parlance for a tongue-lashing _ from House Speaker Newt Gingrich has made much difference. Like many folks, Speaker Gingrich regards the congressional crackdown on the online world as an assault on every citizens basic right to free discourse. Over the summer and in recent weeks, it appeared the House would recommend far less intrusive measures than the Senate. But the push for more reasonable steps such as online warning signs has faltered. What hope is there of keeping cyberspace as free as possible? A presidential veto would be the quick way; court cases and the inevitable discovery that the harsh restrictions just arent enforceable would be the long, costly way. It would be better if a public outcry convinced Congress now that its attempts to curb Net-surfing are about as foolish as ordering the waves not to come rolling in (Knight Ridder 14). The two of these articles were intended to be a supplement to the main idea of this paper. They are two examples that further show why the internet can not be censored. The obscene material found on the internet has caused some decisions to be made about what violates community standards. A private bulletin board operator in California was prosecuted in Tennessee for making some material available to a member of the Memphis community. The operator in California was found guilty by the Memphis judicial system. The jury ruled that local community were comprimised when the offensive material was made available to the postal worker from their community. Even though this sort of thing may be legal in California or on the web, the Memphis community felt that this sort of thing was inappropriate. According to Harvard Law School Professor Laurence Tribe, even with the ruling in this case “The question of community standards hasn’t been adequately solved solved in any medium” (Quittner 56). The internet should not be censored. There are many other ways to solve the problem of inappropriate web sites on the internet and censorship is not the best one. Educating people on the uses and misuses of the internet is one of the best ways to filter the world wide web as well as others already mentioned. A small group of people can not be allowed to dictate to the rest of the world what they can and can not view or express on the internet.


Bibliography


Works Cited Brown, Andrew. “The Limits of Freedom.” New Statesman. 1 February 1. 48. Diamond, Edwin. “Five Difficult Issues.” Technology Review. October 15. 4-. Economist. “The Top Shelf Internet Censorship.” The Economist. 18 May 16. 84. Giradi, Albert. “Bringing the Law to the Internet.” Time. January 15. Knight Ridder. “Policing the Internet Can it be done without trampling individual rights?” Knight Ridder/Tribune News Serivce. February 1, 16. 1. Knight Ridder. “Time to stop push to Censor Cyberspace.” Knight Ridder/Tribune News Serivce. December 14, 15. 14. Lewis, Peter. “Quixote’s Network.” Home Office Computing. May 16. 114. Lloyd, Steve. “Privacy and Human Rights.” (Manchester University Press, 168). Nellen, Peter. “Internet Censorship is both a Menace and a Nuisance.” Technology and Learning. November 18. 5. Quittner, Joshua. “Free Speech for the Net a panel of federal judges overturns the Communications Decency Act.” Time. June 16. 56. Ratcliffe, Mitch. “Instead of Net censorship, let users control access.” PC Week. January , 16. A16. Sjoerdsma, Ann G. “Internet Censorship, trying to make sense of it all.” Knight


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